APUSH Chapter 16 terms

barbed wireJoseph Glidden developed a way of making fencing cheaply by twisting together sections of wire into barbed points.
Oklahoma territoryA territory that was once set aside for use by Native Americans that was thrown open for settlement in 1889.
soonereager settlers that jumped the gun to settle Oklahoma when the government declared the availability of new land. Their haste helped Oklahoma by 1907; however, they showed that the frontier was slowly shrinking in respect to available land.
Grangean outlying farm
homestead actPassed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Great American DessertThe arid area between the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Coast was popularly known as the Great American Dessert.
Comstock Lodefirst discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
Chinese Exclusion Act(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. Also caused number of Chinese Immigrants to decrease
Great Plainsa mostly flat and grassy region of western north america
Fredrick Jackson TurnerHistorian during the 1890s who wrote the frontier thesis, which argued that the continuous existence of the American frontier had shaped the character of the nation, and the end of this frontier marked the end the first chapter in American history.
Sitting Bulla chief of the Sioux who took up arms against settlers in the northern Great Plains and against United States Army troops; he was present at the battle of Little Bighorn (1876) when the Sioux massacred General Custer’s troops (1831-1890)
Crazy Horsea chief of the Sioux who resisted the invasion of the Black Hills and joined Sitting Bull in the defeat of General Custer at Little Bighorn (1849-1877)
George CusterUnited States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
Little Big HornIn 1876, Colonel George A. Custer and 260 of his men were killed by Sioux Indians led by Sitting Bull at this battle in southern Montana. “Custer’s Last Stand” became enshrined in American mythology as a symbol of the brutality of the Indian wars, although there is substantial evidence that Custer acted recklessly in attacking the large Indian encampment.
Helen Hunt JacksonA writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
assimilationistone who wants to absorb one cultural group into harmony with another
Dawes Severalty ActBill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Ghost Dance Movementa Native American movement that called for a return to traditional ways of life and challenged white dominance in society
Wounded Kneevillage in South Dakota. In 1890 it was the site of a massacre of Native North Americans in which between 150 and 370 Sioux people were killed, most of them unarmed.
Indian reorganization Act 1934Act which secured certain rights to Native Americans. These include a reversal of the Dawes Act’s privatization of common holdings of American Indians and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. Owing to this Act and to other actions of federal courts and the government, over two million acres of land were returned to various tribes in the first 20 years after passage of the act.
National Grange MovementOrganized in 1868 by Oliver H. Kelley as social and educational organization for farmers and their families.
cooperativesfarms owned and operated by the government
Granger lawsGrangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
Munn v. Illinois1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Wabash v. IllinoisSupreme court ruling that states could not regulate interstate commerce
Interstate Commerce Act 1886Required railroad rates to be “reasonable and just.” It also set up the first federal regulatory agency, the Interstate Commerce Commission, or the ICC, which had the power to investigate and prosecute pools, rebates, and other discriminatory practices.
farmers’ alliancesgroups of farmers of those in sympathy with farming issues, whosent lectures from town to town to educate people about agriculural and rural issues,
National AllianceLate-nineteenth century groups that worked to improve the condition of farmers in the West and the South, The deepening crisis in farm prices in the 1880s resulted in the blending of a host of organizations into the National Alliance Movement. The movement had distinct branches in the South and Midwest.
Ocala PlatformDemanded, among other things, the abolition of national banks, a graduated income tax, free and unlimited coinage of silver, the establishment of sub treasuries where farmers could obtain money at less than 2 percent on nonperishable products, and the election of U.S. senators by a direct vote of the people.