Abnormal Psych: Chapter 7

Just before debuting at Carnegie Hall, the pianist suffered paralysis of her left hand. Which of the following BEST describes her disorder?conversion disorder
A 35-year-old woman hobbles into the office of a physician complaining of a debilitating illness that has robbed her of the use of her left leg and right arm. The physician finds no physical basis for her symptoms. She appears totally unaware that the cause of her symptoms may be psychological. The diagnosis would be:conversion disorder
Abnormalities that are thought to have both biological and psychological causes are:somatoform disorder
Which of the following is an example of malingering?intentionally faking a back problem to avoid military service
Which of the following is TRUE about factitious disorders?Those with factitious disorder are not trying to achieve some external gain by faking illness.
A man appeared at the emergency room complaining of bloody diarrhea. The doctor who examined him found that the man was intentionally creating the diarrhea through use of laxatives and anticoagulant medication, and liked being a patient. The man is MOST likely:experiencing a factitious disorder
Having a background in medicine, but also a grudge against the profession, puts a person at risk for:a factitious disorder
Someone who has Munchausen syndrome also by definition has:a factitious disorder
A woman complains of an assortment of physiological ailments. You think that she is intentionally producing the physical symptoms in order to appear sick, which fills some psychological need. You would diagnose:factitious disorder
Sarah brings her young daughter into the emergency room with internal bleeding. The attending physician later concludes that Sarah caused the symptoms in her daughter intentionally, because of a need to gain attention and praise for her devoted care of her sick child. If this assessment is correct, Sarah would be diagnosed as having:Munchausen syndrome by proxy
If a chronically ill child was removed from home and placed in foster care, and then became quite healthy, one might suspect that the parent (usually the mother) was experiencing:a factitious disorder
Munchausen syndrome is a:factitious disorder
Munchausen syndrome by proxy is MOST likely to adversely affect the physical well-being of:the child of the person experiencing it
Which of the following is a MAIN characteristic of an individual with Munchausen syndrome by proxy?emotionally needy
Conversion disorders are more common in:women than men
Conversion disorder most often appear in:adolescence
If a person complains of a wide variety of physical symptoms over a period of time in the absence of a physical basis for the symptoms, the diagnosis would likely be:somatization disorder
Madeline appeared at the clinic complaining of pain in her knee, shoulder, and abdomen, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, and exhaustion. The patient history revealed that she had been going to clinics for years trying to get treatment for these complaints and a host of other physical symptoms. The diagnostic consensus was that Madeline suffered from:somatization disorder
A person experiencing blindness, paralysis, or loss of feeling, may also be said to be displaying:conversion disorder
Which of the following is likely to be useful in distinguishing conversion or somatic symptom disorders from true medical problems?the failure of a condition to develop as expected
Which of the following would lead you to suspect someone has a conversion disorder rather than is exhibiting medical symptoms?uniform and even numbness in the “damaged” hand
The patient had several surgeries over the years for vague and nonspecific sexual reproductive problems, visiting many of the top hospitals in the East during the course of treatment. The BEST diagnosis for this disorder is:somatic symptom disorder
Somatic symptom disorders differ from conversion disorders in that:conversion disorders usually last less time
A patient with a heart condition complained of adhesions from his postoperative scar, leg cramps, and joint stiffness. He seemed to be hurting all over, but no medical reason could be found to explain the symptoms. The BEST diagnosis for this disorder is:somatic symptom disorder (predominant pain pattern)
A woman has experienced a wide range of vague but disturbing physical symptoms over a period of several years. Doctors cannot find a cause for the problems; medically, the woman appears normal. Based on this information, the BEST diagnosis would be:somatic symptom disorder (somatization pattern).
The relationship between gender and somatic symptom disorder generally is that:more women than men are diagnosed with both somatization pattern and predominant pain pattern forms of somatic symptom disorder.
A woman has close female relatives diagnosed with a somatization pattern of somatic symptom disorder. According to research, her probability of being diagnosed with the same disorder is about:20 percent
An individual develops somatic symptom disorder after a near-fatal car crash. The diagnosis:is less likely to be somatization pattern than predominant pain pattern
About what percentage of American men experience a somatic symptom disorder in a given year?less than 1 percent
f you looked in Jeanette’s medicine cabinet, you would find dozens of prescriptions and even more over-the-counter medications. Every time she sneezes, Jeanette is sure she has the latest deadly flu, although no physician has ever found anything wrong with her. Jeanette probably suffers from:somatic symptom disorder
In the latter half of the nineteenth century, a person who today is diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder would MOST likely have been diagnosed with:Briquet’s syndrome
Freud believed that “hysterical” symptoms:enabled people to avoid unpleasant activities
Which statement BEST reflects our understanding of hysterical disorders?The causes of hysterical disorders are poorly understood, with no theory predominant in aiding understanding.
Disorders that represent the conversion of conflicts and anxiety into physical symptoms would include:conversion disorders
According to the psychodynamic view, conversion disorder symptoms function to keep unacceptable thoughts and conflicts out of consciousness. This is called:primary gain
If a therapist believed that a person was displaying conversion disorder symptoms because the symptoms helped the person avoid unpleasant situations, you would think that the therapist was:a psychoanalyst or a behaviorist
It was convenient when Rowena awoke blind. She had been terrified about testifying and now she did not have to. This is an example of:repression
A woman who is particularly threatened by any display of anger becomes unable to speak when she is most angry with her husband, thereby keeping the anger out of her awareness. According to psychodynamic theorists, she is achieving ______ from her illness.primary gain
If a man’s behavior elicited kindness and sympathy from his wife when he was mute, he would be receiving ______ gains from his behavior.secondary
Every time Miguel had a headache, his mother let him miss school. Now, as an adult, his headaches have become more frequent. His head pounds any time he is required to do something he would rather not do. This is a ______ explanation of conversion symptoms.behavioral
“It’s obvious that the patient observed friends who had symptoms of illness, then imitated those symptoms to get attention,” says the therapist. MOST likely, the therapist has which theoretical perspective?behavioral
The first time the patient reported vague chest pains to 911, local EMTs responded with obvious attention and concern. Over the next several months, the patient called 911 more and more often, receiving the same concerned care for the same symptoms. This pattern of patient response is MOST easily explained by which theoretical perspective?behavioral
If you were a therapist with a behavioral view, which of the following questions would you be MOST likely to ask someone you suspected might have a somatic symptom disorder?“Has any friend of yours had similar symptoms recently?”
The MAIN criticism of the behavioral and psychodynamic explanations for the maintenance of hysterical disorders is that:they can’t explain how the gains can outweigh the pain of the disorder.
That people with somatic symptom disorders use their symptoms to express emotions they cannot easily express otherwise reflects the:cognitive view
A cognitive theorist would be MOST likely to say which of the following about hysterical disorders?The patient is otherwise unable to communicate difficult emotions.
Residents of Japan are more likely than residents of the United States to show higher rates of somatic complaints, MOST likely reflecting:a Western bias that sees somatization as an inferior way to handle emotions.
An individual who has been diagnosed with a somatic symptom disorder would MOST likely first seek:medical help
A therapist treating an individual with a conversion disorder works to reduce pleasurable outcomes associated with being sick, while increasing pleasurable outcomes associated with being well. This technique is called:reinforcement
Albert had finally had enough of his inability to walk, and he went to a psychologist who told him there was nothing medically wrong with him. The therapist was using the treatment approach of:confrontation
Based on evidence from case studies, the BEST advice you could give someone who is experiencing a conversion disorder about seeking treatment is:“Approaches using suggestion, reinforcement, and confrontation are often used.”
Behavioral therapists treating a conversion disorder would be MOST likely to focus on:reducing the rewards available for displaying the disorder.
Imagine someone gets hit in the nose by a batted ball. The latest research suggests that swearing will:reduce pain
“It seems to me that people with illness anxiety disorder simply model what they see others doing.” A person with which theoretical view would be MOST likely to say this?behavioral
A therapist treating a client with illness anxiety disorder repeatedly shows the client how the client’s body is less than perfect, while not allowing the client to seek medical attention. MOST likely, the therapist’s viewpoint is:behavioral, and the therapy is called exposure and response prevention.
Increasingly concerned about my minor heartbeat irregularities, I think that my health is being threatened, and more and more often I misinterpret my body’s normal signals. Which viewpoint BEST explains my experiences?cognitive
When I took abnormal psychology as an undergraduate, I was convinced I had symptoms of many of the earlier disorders we covered. As soon as we moved on to new disorders, though, I was convinced I had some of their symptoms, as well. My experiences were similar to those of some people with a form of illness anxiety disorder sometimes called:“medical student’s disease”
According to DSM-5, body dysmorphic disorder is MOST closely related to which other psychological disorder?obsessive-compulsive disorder
Imagine that you have a body dysmorphic disorder centered around your feet. Your therapist keeps reminding you of your ugly feet and makes you wear sandals. What sort of treatment is your therapist MOST likely using?exposure and response prevention
If you were receiving the most effective medication for body dysmorphic disorder, you would be receiving a(n):antidepressant medication
A person diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder receives treatment based upon exposure and response prevention. The person could reasonably expect to experience:less concern about physical defects, and less avoidance of social interactions
Our expectations, values, and goals combine to form our:identity
A person experiencing multiple personalities would MOST accurately be diagnosed with dissociative:identity disorder
If you had lost your sense of identity, which of the following would MOST likely be disrupted?your memory
Dissociative disorders:involve major changes in memory
Which diagnosis includes a breakdown in sense of self, a significant alteration in memory or identity, and even a separation of one part of the identity from another part?dissociative disorder
An individual has been diagnosed with a dissociative disorder. However, the individual has very good recall of previous life events, and has a strong sense of self. The MOST likely diagnosis for this individual is:depersonalization disorder
A feeling of detachment from oneself could be diagnosed as PTSD or depersonalization disorder. How would one decide which diagnosis is BEST?by considering which symptoms predominated
People who are unable to recall important information about themselves, especially of an upsetting nature, are MOST likely experiencing:dissociative amnesia
In the MOST common type of dissociative amnesia, a person loses memory for:all events beginning with the trauma but within a limited period of time.
After a major earthquake, television coverage showed survivors shuffling confusedly through the ruined buildings. If such victims later could not remember the days immediately after the earthquake, the victims would be suffering from what type of amnesia?localized
Mary Ann experiences a mugging and robbery in which her poodle is kidnapped. Eventually the dog is found and returned. However, she is unable to recall events immediately following the attack, up until the safe return of the dog. This is a classic example of:localized amnesia
Gwendolyn is held up at knifepoint and her young son is kidnapped. Eventually, her son is found and returned. However, she is unable to recall events that occurred since the attack, although she remembers some new experiences; worse still, she finds that she is forgetting events that occurred even before the attack. This is a classic example of:generalized amnesia
Carlotta is attacked in the street and her young daughter is kidnapped. Eventually, the police find her daughter and she is returned to her mother. However, Carlotta is unable to recall events that have occurred since the attack. She is even unable to retain new information; she remembers what happened before the attack but cannot remember new and ongoing experiences. This is a classic example of:continuous amnesia
Ever since the auto accident, during which she was miraculously unhurt, Pat has not been the same. She forgets appointments, friends’ names, and even things done in the last few days. Pat’s amnesia is termed:continuous
Combat veterans are MOST likely to report symptoms oflocalized amnesia
A person, years after committing a serious crime, is found living under a false identity over 1,000 miles from where the person used to live. The person’s memory of the crime, and of other earlier events, is intact. Most likely this is a case of:no mental disorder
A personality change that often accompanies dissociative fugues is that people become:more outgoing
Dissociative fugues usuallyfollow a stressful event
Of the following alternatives, which is best for differentiating dissociative amnesia from dissociative fugue?Those with dissociative fugue change where they live
Which of the following is not an example of memory recovery techniques used by therapists?imagining the event
An individual who had suffered from dissociative fugue likely would have experienced all of the following EXCEPT:a recurrence of the problem months or years later
Of the following disorders, the one for which an individual would least likely need therapy to avoid a recurrence and to recover lost memories is:dissociative fugue
A client who is talking calmly and rationally all of a sudden begins whining and complaining like a spoiled child. If that client suffers from true dissociative identity disorder, the client just experienced:switching
A person with dissociative identity disorder has just experienced “switching.” Which of the following MOST likely has happened?The person has changed from one subpersonality to another.
One who suffers from dissociative identity disorder is MOST likely to be a:woman who was physically abused as a child.
Alexis has multiple personality disorder. When one of her personalities, Jodi, is asked about another one, Tom, she claims ignorance. Tom has never heard of Jodi either. This would be called a:mutually amnesic relationship
When all of the subpersonalities in a person with dissociative identity disorder are aware of one another, it is termed a:mutually cognizant pattern
Raymond has multiple personality disorder. All of his subpersonalities talk about and tattle on each other. This is called a:mutually cognizant pattern
In a case of multiple personality, “Pat” is aware of the existence of “Jerry” and “Chris,” but “Jerry” and “Chris” are not aware of the existence of the other personalities. This form of subpersonality relationship is called:one-way amnesic
Juanita has multiple personality disorder. Big Tony and Smart Alice are two personalities who are aware of all of the others. None of her other personalities are aware of each other. This would be called a:one-way amnesic relationship
Jason has dissociative identity disorder. Fat Freddy and Carmen are two personalities who are aware of all of the others, but do not interact with them. Fat Freddy and Carmen would be described as:co-conscious
Modern studies suggest that the average number of subpersonalities in cases of multiple personality in women is about:15, and is lower for men
An individual who formerly knew how to speak a foreign language and play a musical instrument can no longer remember how to as a result of a dissociative disorder. The dissociative disorder MOST likely is:dissociative identity
The best example of the subpersonalities in dissociative identity disorder differing in their vital statistics occurs when:one personality is a woman and another is a man.
Research on evoked potential with people with dissociative identity disorder has revealed that:different subpersonalities have shown different brain response patterns.
One very interesting study investigated the physiological responses of subpersonalities of those with dissociative identity disorder, and the physiological responses of the “subpersonalities” of those instructed to fake dissociative identity disorder. The study showed that the physiological responses of subpersonalities of those with dissociative identity disorder:differed from one another, but the subpersonalities of those faking dissociative identity disorder did not.
How do results from evoked potential studies support the idea of the existence of multiple personalities?Different subpersonalities have been found to show different brain wave patterns.
In the United States, the number of diagnosed cases per year of dissociative identity disorder:has increased
To what can we attribute much of the dramatic rise in the number of reported cases of dissociative identity disorder in recent years?a growing belief by clinicians that this is an authentic disorder
In the past, dissociative identity disorder was most likely “misdiagnosed” as:schizophrenia
A psychodynamic theorist would use repression as the chief explanation for all dissociative disorders except:A psychodynamic theorist would use repression as the chief explanation for dissociative identity disorder, dissociative fugue, and dissociative amnesia.
Psychodynamic theorists believe that dissociative amnesias and fugues result from:repression
Of the following statements, which is the one providing the most persuasive argument against a psychodynamic explanation for dissociative identity disorder?Most abused children don’t develop the disorder.
“An abused child’s thoughts occasionally drift to other, less anxiety-arousing, topics; this anxiety reduction thus serves to strengthen ‘other’ thoughts, while weakening the thoughts about abuse.” A psychologist with which theoretical background would be most likely to offer this quotation as an explanation for the development of dissociative disorders?behavioral
In addition to failing to explain why some people who experience severe trauma do not develop dissociative disorders, behavioral theorists also have the MOST difficulty explaining how:temporary escape from painful memories grows into a complex disorder.
Which of the following hypotheses used to explain dissociative disorders is shared by psychodynamic and behavioral theorists?They serve to help someone escape something unpleasant.
The chief sources of data used to support the theories of psychodynamic and behavioral clinicians are:case studies
Kevin studies his history notes and textbook while he is drinking beer. According to some theorists, Kevin would later do better on his history exam if he also had alcohol in his system while taking the exam. These theorists would be basing their claim on:state-dependent learning
If you studied for this exam while you were unusually happy, you will probably do best taking it while you are:unusually happy
Just after doing well in an intramural basketball game—something which left me very happy, and in a high state of excitement—I sat down and studied for my abnormal psychology test. Research shows I would perform best on that test if, at the time of the test, I was:happy and excited
Laurent has three subpersonalities. Jackie emerges when Laurent is in an awkward social situation, Grace surfaces during sporting events, and Carlos appears when Laurent is angry. The therapist believes that the mood and conditions under which each subpersonality appears are critical to understanding this disorder, demonstrating a belief in:state-dependent learning
If the state-dependent learning explanation of dissociative disorders is correct, a person may not remember stressful events because he or she is:at a different arousal level after the stress is over.
Which of the following has been proposed as a possible cause of dissociative disorders?self-hypnosis
What characteristic is MOST common to both self-hypnosis and dissociative identity disorder?the ability to escape threatening events
What conclusion does research on hypnosis and hypnotic amnesia support?Dissociative disorders are similar to behaviors seen in hypnotic amnesia.
A child in an extremely abusive family situation often seems to become deaf to the verbal abuse, and insensitive to the physical abuse, as if the child simply wasn’t there experiencing the abuse. One explanation of this behavior is:self-hypnosis
I was running down a familiar country lane when all of a sudden nothing looked familiar. It took me several seconds to realize where I was, and I continued my run without incident. What I experienced was:jamais vu
Just before 8 A.M. (when my first class meets), my young daughter did something that annoyed me as I was about to leave home for the short drive to campus. “Katie,” I said, “what do I always say at a time like this?” She looked at the clock, and then said to me, “What you say is, ‘Where are my keys?’” My daughter was apparently familiar with my:absentmindedness
A strong “feeling of knowing” is associated with which of the following?the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
A visual image that is retained so vividly that one can continue to scan it for more information is called:an eidetic image
Individuals experiencing dissociative amnesia sometimes are given sodium amobarbital or sodium pentobarbital because those drugs:calm people and reduce their inhibitions.
Psychodynamic therapy may be particularly effective in the treatment of dissociative disorders because:psychodynamic therapy often tries to recover lost memories.
A person diagnosed with a dissociative disorder has recovered almost completely, even though the person had not received any therapy. That person was LEAST likely to have been diagnosed with:dissociative amnesia
People with which dissociative disorder typically do not eventually recover without receiving treatment?dissociative identity disorder
What effect has the use of sodium amobarbital had in treating dissociative amnesia and fugue?Results are mixed, successful with some patients and not with others.
In the treatment of dissociative amnesia, sodium amobarbital and sodium pentobarbital work by:freeing people from their inhibitions, thus allowing them to recall unpleasant events.
The first step in treating people with dissociative identity disorder is to:bond with the primary personality.
The usual goal of therapy for dissociative identity disorders is to:merge the subpersonalities into a single identity.
All of the following are true about hypnosis, EXCEPT:hypnosis involves a sleep-like state.
One of the subpersonalities of a person receiving treatment for dissociative identity disorder has just become a “protector.” How far along in therapy has the person probably progressed?moderately far because a protector usually emerges before subpersonality integration
A client receiving treatment for identity disorder is progressing well through therapy; then, fusion occurs. MOST likely, the client has:merged the final two or more subpersonalities.
At a workshop about multiple personality disorder, a therapist says, “In my experience, once integration begins, the need for therapy is practically over, and later dissociations just don’t happen.” This therapist’s experience is:very unusual; most successful therapies last well beyond the beginning of integration.
The effects of taking hallucinogens accompanied by feelings that objects are changing size, that other people are distorted, and that one might be mechanical is MOST similar to:depersonalization
Depersonalization ________, while derealization _______.refers to oneself; refers to the external world
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate about depersonalization disorder?Depersonalization disorder usually comes on suddenly and may be triggered by extreme fatigue, intense stress, or pain.
Someone who is experiencing “doubling” is:feeling like his or her mind is floating above him or her.
If a person’s mental functioning or body feels unreal or foreign, the person is MOST likely suffering from:depersonalization
Feeling that your hands and feet are smaller or bigger than usual or that you are in a dreamlike state is called:doubling
When a person feels that the external world is removed, mechanical, distorted, or even “dead,” he or she is experiencing:derealization
I have just arrived in a city where I know no one, and English is not spoken by very many people. I feel as though my mind is separating from my body and I am actually observing myself do things. What I am experiencing is:temporary depersonalization
Transient depersonalization and derealization:can be induced by a life-threatening experience.
Depersonalization disorder is most common among those who are:adolescents and young adults
If I suffer from depersonalization disorder, but the symptoms disappear after a while, they most likely will reappear if I:survive a bad car accident