Chapter 12 Lifespan

_____ includes all behavioral characteristics that a society considers appropriate for men or women.Gender
In the hypothetical country of Whoville, only females are allowed to cook roast beast. This best exemplifies a _____ difference.gender
Which chromosome pattern is most common for a female?XX
Which chromosome pattern is most common for a male?XY
Each society generally has a set of expectations regarding the behaviors and traits that are considered appropriate for males as compared to females. These sets of expectations aregender roles.
In the hypothetical country called Ozland, females drive trucks and males drive cars. This indicates that Ozland hasgender roles.
The key element of gender-role norms is that within a society, they are viewed asdesirable characteristics.
While Charlotte is growing up, she is socialized into believing that a woman should stay home and take care of the children while men go off to work and “bring home the bacon.” This message best reflects agender-role norm.
The defining element of gender-role stereotypes is that they arelargely inaccurate.
Mr. and Mrs. Hill have two children, Jack and Jill. They make no bones about telling Jack that he should be an engineer, because men are good at math, and that Jill should be a nurse, because women are good at taking care of other people. Given the fact that male-female differences in math and nurturing are questionable, the Hill’s message best reflects a(n)gender-role stereotype.
Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are calledgender-role stereotypes.
Agency is to communality asmasculine is to feminine.
Which is the best example of a communality role in American society?Caring for a sick child
Communality roles are designed to prepare someone to beconnected to others
A brain “hardwired” for _____ would always show a high level of sensitivity toward others.communality
“Agency” is defined as thecentral aspect of the masculine gender role.
The goal of the gender role aspect called “agency” is to prepare a person forindividual achievement.
Which is the best example of an agency aspect of gender?Dominance
Baron-Cohen claims that a man’s tendency to systemize is the result ofhaving a male brain.
Which trait is best associated with the tendency to systemize?Exploration of how things work
Research on gender-role stereotypes has shown that in the United States during the past few decades, gender-role stereotypes havechanged slightly.
With regard to gender stereotypes in the 1990s vs. today,more women now view themselves as having more agentic traits.
The gender similarity hypothesis proposes that males and females are similar onmost psychological variables.
If Kirsten believes in the saying, “Boys and girls are more alike than different,” she is clearly a fan ofthe gender similarity hypothesis.
The best summary concerning differences in verbal abilities is thatfemales appear to have a small advantage.
Males out-perform females on tests of mental rotationthroughout the lifespan.
Research on gender differences in math ability has shown thatfemales obtain slightly higher grades in math classes.
In what area of mathematics do females show a slight edge?Grades in math class
Which is true regarding common gender stereotypes?There is consistent research support for the fact that males are more aggressive than females.
With regard to actual psychological differences between males and females, research has consistently found that, on average,males are more physically active.
The statement, “Girls are more _____,” has received the most empirical research support.empathic
Research on gender differences suggests that girls aremore compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers.
Which of the following tends to be found at higher levels in males?Confidence in computer use
If American children Nicholas (a boy) and Alexandra (a girl) are typical of other members of their sex, then you would predict thatAlexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant.
What is the best conclusion about psychological differences between the sexes?Males and females are far more similar than different.
If we identified 100 typical males and 100 typical females and assessed them across a variety of psychological attributes, chances are that about _____ of the observed differences could be attributed to whether the person was male or female.5%
The social-role hypothesis predicts thatgender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society.
Eagly’s social-role hypothesis argues that gender-role stereotypesare driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves.
If you believe in the social-role hypothesis, then you would be most likely to argue that the most effective way to change the stereotype of men as dominant would be toput women in charge of every major business.
Which statement about sex differences is true?Although actual psychological gender differences are small, they make a major difference in a society.
A list of the most common occupations held by women in the U.S., would be least likely to include“doctor.”
Shawn and Dawn are a typical U.S. couple. What makes them a little unusual is that Dawn works outside the home while Shawn is a stay-at-home dad. Research has indicated that Shawn and Dawn most likelydivide their at-home labor responsibilities along traditional lines.
Non-anatomical differences between newborn females and males are best described assmall and insignificant.
Adults are asked to interact with an unknown infant. Half of the adults are told that the infant is “Steve” and the other half are told that the infant is “Stacy.” What are you likely to observe of these interactions?Adults are likely to rate “Steve” as strong and brave and “Stacy” as soft and cuddly.
At what age do infants first appear to demonstrate cross-modal associations concerning gender information by looking longer at a female face when a female voice is heard vs. when a male voice is heard?one year
The initial awareness that you are either a boy or girl is referred to asgender identity.
For the first time in her life, little Glenda looks at her mom and says, “Glenda is a girl.” This statement indicates that Glenda has just achievedgender identity.
Most children clearly demonstrate basic gender identity by2½ to 3 years of age.
The process by which children become aware of the fact that they are either male or female and that there are different cultural expectations concerning the pattern of behavior for the two sexes is calledgender typing.
Through her mother’s efforts, Olive has just come to realize that she is a girl and has also begun to acquire behaviors expected of girls. This process is best classified asgender typing.
Children appear to learn gender stereotypesaround the point that they become aware of their basic gender identities.
Which statement concerning toddlers’ understanding of gender roles is true?Females and males appear to understand gender-based activities at the same age.
Who would a typical five-year-old in the U.S. believe to be most competent at their job?A female assistant
With regard to children’s views of gender stereotypes, research has indicated thatfive-year-olds are more upset by violations of gender-role stereotypes than are nine-year-olds.
When asked if it is okay for a boy to play with dolls, Geoffery says, “Absolutely not, it’s a rule that only girls can play with dolls.” Based on research on gender roles and stereotypes, what age is Geoffery’s most likely age?6
What effect does the establishment of a firm sense of gender identity tend to have on children?They develop more flexible rules concerning appropriate “boy” and “girl” behavior.
The establishment of a preference for same-sexed friendships is first apparent by around age30 months.
Spanky, Alfalfa, and the rest of the boys in the first-grade class have decided that from now on, boys will only play with boys and never with girls. This decision provides a nice example of the concept ofgender segregation.
Which best illustrates gender segregation?Seeing one group consisting of all girls playing at one end of a gym and an all-boy group playing at the other end.
Which best illustrates the concept of gender segregation?A “girls only” scout troop
It was proposed that young children initially segregate themselves into same-sex peer groups becausetheir play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together.
Five-year-old Penny draws clear lines between what types of games boys and girls should play and makes every effort to avoid playing with boys like her neighbor Pee Wee. Research has shown that preschoolers with attitudes like Penny tend to bewell adjusted.
In the U.S., which eight-year-old would be most likely to be ridiculed and teased by his or her classmates?A male who identifies himself as a “sissy”
Which two groups view violations of gender roles most negatively?Young elementary school-aged children and adolescents
Based on research by Stoddart and Turiel, which two people would you expect to hold the most negative attitudes concerning the violation of gender roles (e.g., a boy wearing nail polish)?A 5-year-old and a 13-year-old
In general, young adolescentsview gender-role violations as a sign of psychological abnormality.
Gender intensification involves an increasedintolerance of any deviation from proscribed gender roles.
An example of gender intensification would involvea boy asserting his masculinity among his peers.
Gender intensification appears to be driven byhormonal changes at puberty and peer pressure to conform to gender roles.
According to Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory of gender-role development,several critical biological events set the stage for different social reactions to males and females.
Biosocial theory views the sex chromosome pattern of an infant (e.g., XX) asa starting point for biological differentiation of the sexes.
With regard to biological differentiation of the sexes, which is FALSE?External genitalia are fully differentiated by the fourth week after conception.
A baby with an XY chromosome patterncan develop the internal or external sex and reproductive system of either sex .
Which biological event directly results in the growth of a penis in a male fetus?Secretion of testosterone by the testes
Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true?A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory of gender typing suggests all of the following EXCEPT thatfetal chromosomal differences (e.g., XX versus XY) are the most important factors in determining gender-role behavior.
Androgenized females are girls whohave been exposed prenatally to male hormones.
Some individuals inherit an XX chromosome pattern but are exposed prenatally to drugs that are converted to male hormones once in the body. These individuals are likely tohave masculinized genitalia and behave in more “masculine ways.”
_____ females have external genitalia that resemble those of a boy.Androgenized
What is the most likely behavioral outcome of exposing a female rhesus monkey to testosterone during its prenatal time of development?It will attempt to sexually “mount” male partners when it reaches sexual maturity.
What evidence did Money and Ehrhardt use as the basis for concluding that there is a critical period for the establishment of gender identity?Sex reassignment before 18 months of age causes few adjustment problems, while reassignment after 3 years of age is very difficult.
What “lesson” was learned through the life and death of Money’s sex-reassignment patient Bruce/Brenda/David?Gender identity may not be as pliable as once thought
Research on individuals from the Dominican Republic who are raised as girls (due to the ambiguous genitalia) but become males following puberty has challenged the Money and Ehrhardt argument thatsocialization during the first three years of life is critical.
From the time they are born, twins Johnny (a boy) and Joannie (a girl) are treated diversely. For example, whenever Johnny plays with a truck, his parents praise his behavior. Whenever Joannie shows an interest in a doll, her parents praise her actions. A social learning theorist would likely argue that this _____ will likely lead to distinct gender roles for Johnny and Joannie.differential reinforcement
A social learning theorist would use the concept of _____ to explain how a child watching her mother engage in feminine activities would directly lead the child to acquire a feminine gender identity.observational learning
Research by Morrongiello and Hogg (2004) found that when asked to imagine their children misbehaving in some dangerous way (e.g., bicycling fast down a hill), moms reported that they felt _____ toward their sons and _____ toward their daughters.anger; disappointment
Research by Morrongiello and Hogg (2004) found that when asked to prevent future risky behavior in a child who had misbehaved in some dangerous way (e.g., bicycling fast down a hill), moms reported that they wouldnot intervene with the boys but would set more rules with girls.
In families where parents show clear patterns of differential reinforcement concerning sex-appropriate behavior, children tend todevelop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences.
Research on reinforcement of sex-appropriate behavior indicates thatfathers are more likely than mothers to discourage youngsters for playing with gender-inappropriate toys.
Which would best fit with the theory that differential treatment by parents negatively influences math skills in a child through the creation of self-fulfilling prophecy?Parents attribute their daughter’s math success to luck and not ability so the daughter becomes convinced that she is not good at math but rather gets lucky on math tests sometimes.
Audrey grows up in a family in which her father provides at-home daycare and her mother is a construction worker. A social learning theorist would be most likely to explain Audrey’s unusual attitudes (i.e., she loves trucks and hates dolls) in terms ofobservational learning.
Which type of theorist would be most likely to argue that watching videos in which males are rewarded for sexual violence would directly lead to them engaging in violent sex acts in order to be manly?A social learning theorist
. Five-year-old Emeril loves watching cooking shows on television. Emeril’s dad is very concerned that by watching these shows, Emeril will become feminine. Which type of theorist would be most likely to agree with Emeril’s dad’s concern over the impact of television on gender-role development?A social learning theorist
Research on gender portrayals in of characters in picture and elementary school books found thatfemale characters are often still portrayed as passive and helpless.
In which type of media outlet would you expect to find the strongest portrayal of traditional gender stereotypes (i.e., the aggressive male and the victimized female)?Video games
With regard to gender-role development, social learning theorists have been criticized forportraying children as passive participants in the developmental process.
According to Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory of gender typing, gender-role developmentdepends on stage like changes in thinking.
A major theme of Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory of gender typing involves a child engaging inself-socialization.
. “I am a boy. Therefore I want to do the things boys do.” This statement is reflective of which theoretical perspective regarding gender-role development?Cognitive-developmental theory
For Kohlberg, the outcome of the three childhood stages of gender development is the acquisition of genderconstancy.
According to cognitive-developmental theory, the initial phase of gender identity is established around age 2 or 3, when a childrecognizes that they are a male or female.
Which statement indicates that a child is in Kohlberg’s initial basic gender identity stage of development?“I am a girl.”
Whose statement indicates an understanding of gender stability?Tom, who says “Once a boy always a boy.”
Gender stability is defined as understanding thatgender is stable across time.
RuPaul has just come to realize that when a boy dresses like a girl, he does not actually become a girl. In cognitive-developmental theory, RuPaul appears to have just acquiredgender consistency.
According to the cognitive-developmental perspective of gender typing, which is the most mature understanding?Understanding that gender is stable across situations
The Piagetian stage of _____ appears to be most directly linked to the acquisition of gender consistency.concrete-operational thought
The most common criticism of Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental explanation of gender typing is thatchildren often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency.
Martin and Halverson’s gender schema model suggests thatchildren are intrinsically interested in learning about objects or activities that fit their own-sex schemas.
A major difference between Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory and Martin and Halverson’s gender-schema theory is that gender typing in the gender-schema theorybegins as soon as children acquire gender identity at around two to three years of age.
Gender schematainfluence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender.
The basic premise of gender-schema theory is that children actively seek objects and/or activities thatmatch their own-sex schemata.
Which is the best example of an in-group-out-group gender schema?Boys can fight, but girls should play nice.
Four-year-old Austin believes that only girls can be nurses. At his next check-up, he happens to be seen by a male nurse. According to gender-schema theory, if a week later you were to ask Austin if boys can be nurses, his answer would most likely be“No.”
According to gender-schema theory, if four-year-old Ginny (who classifies herself as a girl) believes that jumping rope is a “girl thing” and playing football is a “boy thing,” then she would most likelythink that jumping rope is for her (even if she has never done it in the past).
If Zsa Zsa argues that gender schemas are the key to gender acquisition, she is best characterized as a taking a _____ perspective.cognitive
On which of the following point do most theories of gender-role development agree?Gender roles that children develop depend on an interaction between biological factors and what their society offers in terms of gender models.
In general, gender rolesbecome more traditional and differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child.
Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE?In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Androgyny refers to individuals who arehigh in masculine traits and high in feminine traits.
An androgynous person would have a _____ agentic score and a _____ communal score.high; high
On a personality test, Burt scores very low on both the agentic and communal scales. As such, he is best classified asundifferentiated.
How would you demonstrate androgyny?Be both assertive and compassionate.
Most college students believe that the ideal person has a(n) _____ gender type.androgynous
Sarah is an eight-year-old female who displays many male traits. What is the most likely peer reaction to Sarah?Rejection
The theory that becoming parents pressures males to be more “masculine” and females to be more “feminine” is referred to as theparental imperative.
Gutmann’s hypothesis regarding the “parental imperative” suggests thatbecoming parents pressures males to be more “masculine” and females to be more “feminine.”
Prior to the birth of their first child, Ward and June have very strong gender-role orientation. Ward, the father, is extremely masculine while June, the mother, is extremely feminine. According to the “parental imperative,” what would you expect to happen to Ward and June’s gender roles following the birth of their first son, Wally?There will be little change in their gender roles.
According to the concept of androgyny shift,during midlife, people begin to adopt some of the gender traits associated with the opposite sex.
When he became a grandfather, Lorne retained his masculine traits but also became more nurturing and learned to cook. This best exemplifies the concept ofandrogyny shift.
Observations of infants and infant sexuality suggest all of the following EXCEPT thatthey actively seek sexual contact with other infants.
Which of the following is true regarding children’s knowledge of sex and reproduction?Children’s level of understanding is linked to their cognitive development.
According to Freud, during the school-age years, children who all been previously sexually active enter a latency period in which they repress their sexuality. Research has demonstrated that this conceptualization isoff target, as children’s early sexual activity appears to continue during the school-age years.
Research supports all of the following EXCEPT thatsexual behavior in puberty is best conceptualized as being solely driven by hormones.
Research on children who are victims of sexual abuse has indicated thatsome victims can experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder.
How many of the following (flashbacks to the traumatizing events, feelings of helplessness, feelings of extreme euphoria) are characteristic of an individual experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder?2
The impact of sexual abuse appears to be most severe when the abuse was afrequent, long-term event involving a close relative.
Which statement concerning the establishment of one’s sexual orientation is true?Homosexual experimentation is fairly common during adolescence.
Twin studies on sexual orientation show thatgenetic and environmental influences appear about equally responsible for sexual orientation.
Research on sexual orientation indicates thatconsistent, strong cross-sex interests in late childhood may predict later homosexual or bisexual orientation.
One promising theory is that _____ influences during prenatal development are responsible for determining your sexual orientation.hormonal
Most teens in the U.S. believe thatsex, in the context of a committed relationship is acceptable, but casual sex is much less acceptable.
Which best illustrates the underlying premise of the double standard?What’s okay for him is not okay for her.
When discussing sex with his buddies, Hef says, “The key is to understand that normal guys want and need sex, whereas girls who want sex are immoral and corrupt.” Hef’s comments best exemplify the concept ofthe double standard.
Research on 12th-graders indicates thatboth males and females tend to be sexually active (i.e., have had at least one sexual encounter) and are so at similar rates.
Which statement concerning current teen sexuality is the United States is true?Teens tend to view oral sex as significantly less “intimate” than did their parents’ generation.
A 2007 study of college students found that about _____ agreed that they “had sex” when they engaged in oral-genital stimulation.20%
Research on 16-year-old sexual abstainers, low risk-takers, and high risk-takers found thatlow-risk teens were most likely to be involved in romantic relationships.
How many of the following (high levels of adventuresomeness, low levels of impulse control, high levels of alcohol consumption) have been shown to increase the likelihood of a teenager engaging in risky sexual behavior?3
Which statement concerning condom use is true?Adolescent females report less condom use than adolescent males.
Which statement concerning sexual activity and adulthood is true?There has been a significant increase in incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in middle-aged Americans.
Regarding sexuality during old age,sexual activity is most common when a person is married (versus divorced).
Womentend to have a shorter sexual refractory period than men.
Which appears to contribute most to the lack of sexual activity among old women?Lack of a partner
What childhood behavior did the authors of the text use as an analogy for the decline in sexual activity in old age?Riding a bike