Chapter 6: The integumentary system

What type of hair is present prenatally and usually replaced by birth?Lanugo
Which two strata of the epidermis are most susceptible to cancer?Stratum spinosum and stratum basale
The __________ is absent from most epidermis.stratum lucidum
The reddish color of the skin of the lips is primarily due to the presence of which pigment?Hemoglobin
What is the white opaque “moon” often found at the proximal end of a fingernail called?Lunule
The hypodermis is characterized by an abundance of which tissue?Adipose tissue
The least common, but most deadly, type of skin cancer is __________.melanoma
__________ burns involve the epidermis, all of the dermis, and often some deeper tissue.Third-degree
A __________ is an elevated patch of melanized skin.mole
The youngest keratinocytes are found in the stratum basale.True
Looking at a slide of axillary skin under the microscope, you notice the presence of __________ glands that are absent on slides of the scalp.apocrine
Secretions from __________ glands contribute to the acid mantle that inhibits bacterial growth on the skin.merocrine sweat
The base where a hair follicle originates in the skin is known as the __________.Hair bulb
The __________ glands are a source of sex pheromones.apocrine
Looking at a slide of thin skin under the microscope, you note that the stratum basale is the __________ layer of the epidermis in from the surface.fourth
Albinism is the genetic lack of melanin that results in a milky white coloration of the skin.True
Freckles are elevated patches with an abnormal coloration of the skin.False
The skin is a barrier to all of the following except __________.metals such as mercury
Mitosis in the __________ accounts for growth of the nail.nail matrix
Fingerprints left on things we touch are associated with our __________.dermal papillae
Debridement is not necessary to infection control.False
Which of the following best describes the composition of the dermis?Collagen and fibroblasts
Hair and nails are composed of collagen.False
Pattern baldness is relatively rare in women because women have lower testosterone levels than men.True
Excessive hairiness is called __________.hirsutism
Increased bilirubin levels cause a skin discoloration called __________.jaundice
Which layer of the epidermis consists of up to 30 layers of dead cells?Stratum corneum
Skin covering the __________ has sweat glands but no hair follicles or sebaceous glands.fingertips
In which of the following skin layers would a subcutaneous injection be administered?Hypodermis
Which of the following is not part of the skin?Hypodermis
The skin carries out the first step in the synthesis of vitamin D.True
A hair cycle consists of three developmental stages in which order?Anagen, catagen, and telogen
The fastest rate of mitosis happens in the __________.stratum basale
Living keratinocytes exfoliate from the epidermis as tiny specks called dander.False
The deeper of the two layers of the skin is the hypodermis.False
Melanin, hemoglobin, and carotene give color to the skin.True
Embarrassment can be perceived by an abnormal coloration of the skin call cyanosis.False
The acidity of sweat contributes to the acid mantle that inhibits bacterial growth in the skin.True
The three forms of skin cancer are defined by the types of cells from which they originate.True
These are all types of cells found in the epidermis except…fibroblasts
Skin covering the ___ have sweat glands but no hair follicles or sebaceous (oil) glands.fingertips
Most of the skin is ___mm thick.1 to 2
In the dermis, there is ___ and ___ present in this layer of skinCollagen and fibroblasts
Layer 1 (epidermis) represents ____, whereas layer 2 (dermis) represents ___.stratified squamous epithelium; dense irregular connective tissue.
5 layers of the epidermis (surface > deep)5 layers of the epidermis (surface > deep) stratum corneum
stratum lucidum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum basale
This layer of the epidermis consists of up to 30 layers of dead cells…stratum corneum (top layer)
Which of the following are associated with the sense of touch?tactile (Merkel) cells
These cells stand guard against toxins, microbes, and other pathogens…dendritic (Langerhans) cells
Fingerprints left on things we touch are associated with…dermal papillae
Calluses or corns are the result of accelerated multiplication of…keratinocytes
Leather is mostly made of the ___ layer of the dermis, which is very tough due to the high concentration of ___ fibers.reticular; collagen
The skin discoloration most likely to suggest physical abuse is…hematoma
This skin color is most likely to result from anemia…pallor
Ethnic difference in skin color are primarily caused by differences in…quantity of melanin produced
A pilus is..a hair
The hair present only prenatally is called ___, most of which is replaced by ___ by the time of birth.lanugo; vellus
Blood vessels in the ___ provide a hair with its sole source of nutrition.dermal pailla
The contraction of the piloerector muscles (pilomotor muscle or arrector pili) in humans causes…hairs to stand on end with no apparent function.
Each hair grows in an oblique epithelial tube called a(an)…hair follicle
The narrow zone of dead skin overhanging the proximal end of a nail is called…eponychium (cuticle)
Variations in hair color arise from the relative amounts of…eumelanin and pheomelanin
The oil of your scalp is secreted by ___ glands associated with the hair follicles.sebaceous
___ is/are formed partly from the secretions of glands in the external ear canal.cerumen
The cutaneous glands concerned with cooling the body are….merocrine (sweat) glands
The ___ are a source of sex pheromones.apocrine glands
Mammary glands are modified ___ glands that develop within the female breast, whereas ___ are present in both sexes.apocrine; breasts
The “ABCD rule” for recognizing early signs of malignant melanoma refers to the following characteristics of the lesion:Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color, and Diameter
The least common but most deadly type of skin cancer is…melanoma
Basal cell carcinoma initially affects cells of the stratum ___, whereas melanoma arises from ___.basale, melanocytes
The most immediate threat to the life of a patient with severe burns is…fluid loss