Chapter 14 Mitosis Lab

B) FalseMitosis is synonymous with the cell cycle.
Mitosis is the replication and division of the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell in preparation for cytokinesis.Define mitosis.
B) FalseMitosis occurs in bacteria.
interphaseA cell spends most of its time in ________, which is divided into cytokinesis, gap 1, synthesis, and gap 2.
C) synthesisIn which phase does DNA replication occur?
B) division of the cytoplasm and cell into two cells, each containing a nucleusMatch the term and the occurrence::cytokinesis
prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophaseList the five stages of mitosis in their correct order.
sister chromatidsIn metaphase, each chromosome consists of an identical pair of chromosomal DNA strands called ________.
mitotic spindleThe ________ is formed by polar, kinetochore, and astral microtubules.
B) kinetochoreWhich type of microtubules connect the sister chromatids to the spindle?
Sister chromatids condense, the spindle starts to form, and the nuclear membrane starts to dissociate.What happens during prophase?
Sister chromatids separate and move toward poles.What happens during anaphase?
Sister chromatids attach to spindle via kinetochore microtubules.What happens during prometaphase?
Chromosomes decondense and nuclear membranes re-form.What happens during telophase?
Sister chromatids align along the metaphase plate.What happens during metaphase?
B) cleavage furrowIn cytokinesis of animal cells, a ________ forms that begins on the periphery and pinches inward, dividing the cytoplasm.
A) cleavage plateIn cytokinesis of plant cells, a ________ forms in the middle of the cell and grows out to the periphery, dividing the cytoplasm.
shoot tips, leaf buds, flower buds, etc.Root tips of plants contain meristems, localized area of rapid cell division due to active growth. In what other areas would you expect to find meristems in plants?
diploidA ________ cell has two copies of each chromosome or a double set of chromosomes.
produce skin cells, hair cells, cells lining the gut, blood cells, etc.Mitosis is used for growth and maintenance in your body. Describe three ways that your body used mitosis today.
A) TrueThe stages of mitosis are not discrete and occur in a continuous sequence.
Cancer is unrestrained cell proliferation caused by damage to genes that regulate mitosis.Define cancer.
B) mitosis, cytokinesisThe division of human cells consists of a series of events, collectively called ________, or nuclear division, and ________, or division of the cytoplasm.
C) prophaseDuring this phase of mitosis, the mitotic spindle forms and the nuclear envelope fragments.
A) anaphaseDuring ________, the shortest phase of mitosis, chromosomes are pulled toward the poles of the cell.
A) centrioleThis organelle is particularly important during cell division. It directs the formation of the mitotic spindle.
A) Cleavage furrow________ is/are a contractile ring of actin microfilaments that eventually results in the division of the cytoplasm.
D) sperm cellOnly one human cell has a flagellum. This specialization allows the cell to propel itself forward. It is a ________.
C) interphaseFrom the time it is formed until it reproduces, the cell undergoes growth and carries out its functions in the body. What is the name for this portion of the cell’s life cycle?
A) 2 genetically identical daughter cellsThe end product of cell division by mitosis is ________.
B) prophaseYou are observing a slide that contains cells undergoing cell division, and you have focused on a cell that has darkly staining X-shaped chromosomes that appear loose throughout the cell. You cannot see a nuclear envelope. This cell is in ________.
A) Chromosomes cluster at the midline of the cell.What event immediately precedes anaphase?
D) telophase and anaphaseIn which phase(s) of mitosis do the chromosomes contain a single copy of DNA?
Cell is growing and metabolizing.
DNA is synthesized.
Chromosomes are duplicated.
Majority of all life processes occurs in interphase.
Interphase has sometimes been called the “resting phase.” Why is this inaccurate?
DNA synthesis
mitosis
cytokinesis
Most general functions of a cell occur during G1 of interphase. What events that occur during other phases of the cell cycle might inhibit general metabolism?
Prokaryotes lack mitochondria. This is the major basis for differences.
Prokaryoteshave lack of organelles, less options for metabolic processes.
prokaryotes, glycolysis only
glycolysis, TCA cycle, E.T.C.
Read in your textbook about prokaryotic cellular respiration; list the fundamental cellular/structural differences between it and eukaryotic cellular respiration. What is the basis for these differences?
GI1, doesn’t undergo replication, therefore do not enter S phase.
Both neurons and blood cells divide specifically from stem cells, some embryonic
Some specialized cells such as neurons and red blood cells lose their ability to replicate when they mature. Which phase of the cell cycle do you suspect is terminal for these cells? Why?
uncontrolled mitosis.
Methods to treat involve arresting cell cycle at “gap points.”
Find a concise definition of “cancer.” How might methods to treat cancer relate to the details in this lab exercise?