AP Human Geography – Migration (Chapter 3)

Brain DrainLarge-scale emigration by talented people
Chain Migration (Migration Ladder)Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Circulation MigrationA type of migration that occurs on a short-term, repetitive, cyclical, or regular basis.
Contagious DiffusionThe rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
DiasporaA scattered population with a common origin in a smaller geographic area (ie. people who come from a common ethic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity)
Distance Decay FunctionA function that represents the way that some entity or its influence decays with distance from its geographical location.
EmigrationMigration from a location
ImmigrationMigration to a new location
Brain GainThe gaining of a brain drain
Expansion DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Forced MigrationPermanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
Voluntary MigrationPermanent movement undertaken by choice
Gravity ModelA mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them.
Guest WorkerCitizen of a poor country who obtains a job in Western Europe or the Middle East.
Hierarchical DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
Internal MigrationPermanent movement within a particular country
International MigrationPermanent movement from one country to another
Intervening ObstacleAn environment or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
Intervening OpportunityThe presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
Lee’s Model of MigrationAdded to Ravenstein’s Migration theory by defining push and pull factors.
Migration TransitionChange in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Migration StreamA constant flow of migrants from the same origin to the same destination.
Migration SelectivityProcess to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds (i.e. criminal records, poor health, or subversive activities) are barred from immigrating
MobilityAll types of movement from one location to another
Net MigrationThe difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
Periodic MovementMovement – for example, college attendance or military service – that involves temporary, recurrent relocation
Push FactorsInduces people to move out of their present location
Pull FactorsInduces people to move into a new location
RefugeeA person who is forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
Relocation DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
RemittancesMoney migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries.
Step MigrationMigration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Stimulus DiffusionThe spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected
Time-Contract WorkersImmigrant recruited for a fixed period to work
TranshumanceThe seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
UrbanizationAn increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements
SuburbanizationMovement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions
CounterurbanizationNet migration from urban to rural areas
Ravenstein’s Laws (1)The majority of migrants go only a short distance.
Ravenstein’s Laws (2)Migration proceeds step by step. There is a process of absorption, whereby people immediately surrounding a rapidly growing town move into it and the gaps they leave are filled by migrants from more distant areas, and so on until the attractive force is spent.
Ravenstein’s Laws (3)Migrants going long distances generally go by preference to one of the great centres of commerce or industry.
Ravenstein’s Laws (4)Each current of migration produces a compensating counter-current.
Ravenstein’s Laws (5)Natives of towns are less migratory than those of rural areas.
Ravenstein’s Laws (6)Females are more migratory than males within the kingdom of their birth, but males more frequently venture beyond.
Ravenstein’s Laws (7)Most migrants are adults: families rarely migrate out of their country of birth.
Ravenstein’s Laws (8)Large towns grow more by migration than by natural increase.
Ravenstein’s Laws (9)Migration increases in volume as industries and commerce develop and transport improves.
Ravenstein’s Laws (10)The major direction of migration is from the agricultural areas to the centres of industry and commerce.
Ravenstein’s Laws (11)The major causes of migration are economic.