Chapter 10 Medical Terminology

Ambul/o-to walk
cephal/ohead
concuss/oshaken together; violently agitated
contus/obruise
ech/o-sound
encephal/obrain
-esthesiasensation, feeling
klept/o-to steal
mening/omembranes, meninges
myel/ospinal chord, bone marrow
narc/o-Sleep, numbness, stupor
neur/i, neur/o-nerve, nerve tissue
-phobiafear
psych/omind
somn/o-sleep
acrophobiafear of heights
alzheimers diseasean irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning
amnesiamemory disturbance characterized by total or partial inability to remember the past
amobarbitalbarbiturate used as sedative and hypnotic
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosisdegenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem
analgesicpainkiller
anesthesiaabsence of normal sensation; induced by anasthetic
anesthesiologistphysician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents for surgery
anestheticmedication used to induce anesthesia
anesthetista medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia, but is not a physician
anxiety statea feeling of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness that stems from the anticipation of danger, the source of which is largely unknown or unrecognized
aphasialoss of ability to speak, write and or comprehend
autistica developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, by impaired communication, and by restricted interests
barbituratedrugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
Bell’s Palsytemporal paralysis of 7th cranial nerve that causes drooping
catatonicmarked by a lack of responsiveness, stupor and tendency to remain in one position
cerebralpertaining to cerebral or brain
cerebral palsyA loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth
cerebrovascular accidentdamage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted; also known as a stroke
claustrophobiafear of tight spaces
cognitionmental activity associated with thinking, learning and memory
comatosein a coma; extremely sleepy
concussionviolent shaking up of brain that results in temporary loss of awareness and function
contusionbruise
cranial hematomacollection of blood trapped in tissues of brain
cranioceleHerniation through the cranium.
deliriumAbnormal mental state characterized by disorientation, inattention, confusion usually related to a metabolic condition
delirium tremorsa condition that can produce fighting hallucinations and and body tremors
delusionsfalse personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof
dementiaImpairment of mental functioning and global cognitive abilities in otherwise alert individuals, causing memory loss and related symptoms and typically having a progressive nature
dyslexiaword blindness; learning disorder marked by impairment of the ability to read
echoence phalographyuse of ultrasound imaging to diagnose a shift in midline structures of brain
electroconvulsive therapya biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
electroencephalographyprocess of recording electrical activity of brain through use of electrodes attached to scalp
empathyIdentification with and understanding of another’s situation, feelings, and motives
encephalitisinflammation of brain
encephalographyradiography of the brain
epidural anesthesiaregional anesthesia produced by injecting medication into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine
grand mal epilepsyMore severe form, characterized by generalized tonic-clonic seizures
Guillain-BarrĂ© syndromedisorder in which a person’s own immune system damages their nerve cells, causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis.
hallucinationsensory perception experienced in absence of external stimulation
hemorrhagicBrain bleed
hydrocephalusaccumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain
hyperesthesiaincreased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
hypochondriasisA somatoform disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses.
kleptomaniaa continual urge to steal regardless of economic motive
malingeringDeliberate faking of a physical or psychological disorder motivated by gain.
meningitisInflammation of meninges
meningoceleprotrusion of the meninges
migraine headachea headache characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head
multiple sclerosisProgressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation resulting in scattered patches of demyelinated nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord.
munchausen syndromeis a psychiatric disorder that causes an individual to self-inflict injury or illness or to fabricate symptoms of physical or mental illness, in order to receive medical care or hospitalization
myelitisinflammation of spinal chord/ bone marrow
myelographyRadiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium through a lumbar puncture.
myelosistumor of spinal chord
narcissistichaving to do with extreme self-adoration and a feeling of superiority of everyone
narcolepsysleep disorder; fall asleep randomly
neurologistspecialist in nervous syndrome
parasthesiaburning or prickling sensation
Parkinson’s diseaseChronic, degenerative central nervous disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors, rigidity, and a slow or shuffling gait.
peripheral neuropathyDisorder of the peripheral nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord.
petit mal epilepsyType of seizure disorder often seen in children. Characterized by periods of inattention, which are not subsequently remembered. Also called spells of absence.
poliomyelitisa viral infection of the gray matter of the spinal cord
ptsdthe development of characteristic symptoms after major traumatic event
psychiatrista medical practitioner specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness.
pyromaniaa disorder characterized by repeated, deliberate fire setting
schizophreniaA group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
sciaticainflammation of sciatic nerve
seizurea sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that affects how a person feels or acts for a short time
syncopefainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to the cerebrum
tetanusan acute and potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by a toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria
thalamotomysurgical incision into thalamus
tic douloureuxSevere jabbing pain, lasts few seconds, triggered by light touch on face
transient ischemic attacktemporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain
neur/onerve
synapseterm that describes the space between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor
myelin sheathprotective covering over some nerve cells
dendritesrootlike structures of a nerve that receive impulses and conduct them to the cell body
pia materlayer of the meninges that is located nearest the brain and spinal cord
hypothalamusseven vital body functions are controlled by the
sympatheticdivision of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned with body functions under stress is the …. nervous system
plexusnetwork of intersecting nerves and blood or lymphatic vessels
peripheralcranial nerves are part of the …. nervous system
frontalmotor functions are controlled by the … lope of the cerebrum
efferentimpulses are carried away from the brain and spinal cord by the …. neurons
ponswhere nerves cross over
cerebrumuppermost layer of the brain
medulla oblongatamost protected brain part
cerebellumcoordinates muscular activity
stuporlowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness and drowsiness
migraineheadache is characterized by sudden, severe, sharp headache that is usually present only on one side
epilepsygroup of neurologic disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of convulsive seizure
somnambulismmedical term for the condition commonly known as sleepwalking
munchausensyndrome by proxy is a form of child abuse
neurorrhaphysuture the ends of a severed nerve in his hand
isomniarecurrent uncontrollable seizures of drowsiness and sleep
phenobarbitalcontrol convulsions
neuralgiapain in a nerve
neuromabenign neoplasms made up of neurons and nerve fibers
tremorinvoluntary trembling of the body
NBOnothing by mouth
homeostasismaintaining a constant interval environment of the body
CVAstroke
OAabbreviation of obstructive apnea
anticonvulsantmedication that prevents seizures and convulsion
neuronbasic cell of the nervous system
apathyindifference and reduced level of activity
obsessionpersistent idea that causes anxiety
bipolara manic-depressive disorder
occipitallobe that controls eyesight
agoraphobiaoverwhelming fear of leaving home
insomniaprolonged abnormal inability to sleep