BIOL 204 Book Questions Test One

What is the appropriate term for an interacting group of individuals of a single type occupying a defined area?population
With evolution as the core theme of biology, we can explain traits shared by organisms as evidence of __________ and traits that differ among organisms as evidence of __________.descent from a common ancestor; adaptation thru natural selection
Feedback regulation includes __________.both negative feedback where pathway shuts down and positive feedback where the pathway speeds up
Which of the following is an attribute of living things?must be able to evolve and adapt
The information in a gene that directs the production of a cellular product is gene expression. The correct sequence for the transfer of information from a gene to a function protein is __________.transcription, translation, protein folding
The genetic material within cells is called __________ and is organized into structures called __________.DNA; chromosomes
A nonlinear, realistic model of the scientific process is called the process of science. The core activity of this process is __________.forming and testing hypotheses
What is the molecule that can account for both the unity and the diversity of life?DNA
A hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable to be scientifically valid. Being testable and falsifiable means that __________.some conceivable observation or experiment could reveal whether a given hypothesis is incorrect
Some properties and processes that are associated with life include all of the following except _____________.reductionism
The use of energy by living organisms __________.involves chemical cycling from light energy from the sun for the production of chemical energy in food to the decomposition and returning of chemicals to the cycle
Which series of terms is in the correct sequence of biological organization, from the simplest to the most complex?Cell, tissue, organ, population, community
The two main forms of cells are __________ cells.prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Using models that represented camouflaged and non-camouflaged mice, Hoekstra and her students tested the hypothesis that coloration of beach and inland mice provides camouflage that protects them from predation.

Regardless of whether the models were placed in the beach or the inland habitat, the camouflaged model always acted as the __________ group.

control
How is the information encoded in DNA actually used by organisms?info in DNA is transcribed to RNA and then translated into protein
Regulation of molecules within an organism in response to a changing level of chemicals and the ability to self-regulate is called __________.feedback regulation
The energy used by most organisms for metabolism and growth ultimately comes from __________.the sun
The fundamental organizing principle of biology and core theme is __________.evolution
The best method for determining whether bean plants require sodium is to __________.grow beans with and w/o sodium
The process that directs the manufacture of a cell product from a gene is called __________.gene expression
Natural selection tends to act at which of the following levels?population
Which of the following statements best describes what is meant by “emergence”?The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
Which of the following observations and inferences led Charles Darwin to his theory of natural selection as a mechanism for evolution?Darwin synthesized his theory of natural selection from all of the listed observations and inferences.
Some properties and processes that are associated with life include all of the following except _____________.reductionism
Which of the following statements is most clearly inductively derived?If the animals observed require organic molecules as nutrients, then it can be concluded that all animals require organic molecules as nutrients.
Which of the following is the smallest unit of organization that can perform all activities required for life?cell
The concept of “descent with modification” was proposed by __________.Darwin
the three domains of life arebacteria, archaea, eukarya
The region that transitions between a river and the sea is called a(n) __________.estuary
The movement of individuals or gametes away from their areas of origin or from centers of high population density is called _________.dispersal
Cattle egrets, originally only found in Africa and southwestern Europe, can now be found in North America, due to which of the following?dispersal
In a rather infamous case of species transplantation, starlings were introduced into North America from Europe in 1890 by an eccentric Shakespeare fan. Though the actual range of starlings was originally in the eastern hemisphere, it is clear that North America was part of its __________ range.potential
An immature frog (a tadpole) lives in a pond or lake. However, the adult frog possesses special adaptations that permit it to survive in a terrestrial environment. These special adaptations __________.help prevent the adult frog’s body from drying out
A large stone or log that shelters animals from extreme temperatures and moisture is called a(n) _________.microclimate
Terrestrial biomes include all of the following regions except the _________ region.limnetic
The term that describes a lake that is nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor is __________.eutrophic
The region that is characterized by a vast realm of open, blue water is called the _________ zone.oceanic pelagic
Bodies of water tend to moderate climate because __________.the hydrogen bonding in water gives it a high specific heat
Why are many of the world’s deserts located at latitudes between 30°N and 30°S?Dry air, originating at the equator, descends toward Earth’s surface between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude.
An ecologist might conduct research to answer which of the following questions?How do tapeworms adapt to life in the human intestine?
A thermocline is a ____________.narrow layer of abrupt temperature change in most lakes and the ocean
North American and African desert plants have similar features but different evolutionary paths due to __________.convergent evolution
After nutrient enrichment from sewage contamination, a lake often becomes inhospitable to fish. Why?Nutrient input to the lake causes the explosive growth of algae and cyanobacterial populations. Decomposition of dead algae and cyanobacteria by bacteria results in the depletion of oxygen in the water, which leads to the death of fish.
Which choice below describes a feature of grassland that explains why its remnants are concentrated in arid regions of North America and central Asia?The soil is fertile and most grassland has been converted to farmland.
Communities that exist in the aphotic zone ultimately depend on food manufactured by chemoautotrophic bacteria or ___________.algae and cyanobacteria that live in the photic zone
Zonation in aquatic zones includes all of the following except the ________ zone.detritus
Temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind are the major components of __________.climate
Below the photic zone of the ocean, __________.food chains are detritus-based
A population that grows rapidly at first and then levels off at carrying capacity can be modeled __________.by a logistic equation
The concept that summarizes the aggregate land and water area required by each person to produce all resources he or she needs and absorb all waste he or she produces is called the _________.ecological footprint
What absolutely essential resource is likely to limit the carrying capacity of Earth for humans?water
Organisms that live in a homogenous abiotic environment and cooperate to avoid being eaten would likely show a(n) __________ pattern of dispersion.clumped
Although there are organisms whose life histories fall somewhere between iteroparity and semelparity, life history always represents a trade-off. Why is this?the energy cost of reproduction is high, so there are not enough resources to reproduce often, produce many offspring, and take care of them
Chimpanzees have a relatively low birth rate. They care for their young, and most chimps live a long life. The chimp survivorship curve would look like ___________.a relatively flat line that drops steeply at the end
__________ is reproduction where adults produce offspring over many years.Iteroparity
An antagonistic social interaction used to defend a bounded physical space is called __________.territoriality
The difference between density and dispersion is that __________.density is the number of individuals of a population in a unit area whereas dispersion is the pattern of spacing of individuals of the population
Fluctuations in the numbers of individuals in a population from year to year are called _________.population dynamics
A particular environmental change causes the deaths of 25 individuals in a herd of 100 wild horses, and it kills 50 individuals in a herd of 200 horses. In this case, the growth of a wild horse population is most likely limited by __________. (Assume that the two herds are found in territories of equal size.)a density-independent factor
Life history traits that are favored at high population densities are known as _________.k-selection
The selective pressures of having a large brood of offspring to care for, as in the kestrel experiment, _________.lower the survival rates of the parents
A population that is growing logistically __________.grows fastest at an intermediate population density
An oak tree produces thousands of acorns, but very few grow into mature oak trees. The oak tree exhibits a __________ survivorship curve.Type III
Mechanisms of density-dependent selection includes all of the following except _______.the size of the brood
A survivorship curve that represents high death rates for the young is a ________ curve.Type III
_________ describes an organism that reproduces once in its lifetime.semelparity
A newly mated queen ant founds a nest in an unoccupied patch of suitable habitat. Assuming that no disasters strike the nest, which of the following types of equations is likely to best describe the population growth of the new colony?logistic
Herring gulls fiercely defend the areas around their nests in cliff-top breeding colonies. Within the colony they would show a __________ dispersion pattern.uniform
The maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain is called the _________.carrying capacity
Life history traits that are favored in uncrowded environments are known as _________.r-selection
A group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area is called a _________.population
No population can grow indefinitely. The ultimate size of any population is limited by __________.carrying capacity of its environment
The difference between immigration and emigration is that _________.immigration is influx of new from other areas; emigration is movement away from a population
A graph that plots the numbers of individuals who are alive at particular ages is called _________.survivorship curve
Life tables typically follow the fate of a cohort, a __________.group of individuals who are the same age
Assuming that r has a positive value, in the formula dN/dt = rmaxN (K – N)/K, the factor rN tends to cause the population to __________.grow increasingly rapidly
Which of the following would most likely be an example of a density-independent factor limiting population growth?daily temp extremes
A group of populations of different species living close enough to interact is called a __________.biological community
A diagram of the trophic relationships of a community showing who eats whom is called a(n) __________.food web
Under which of the following circumstances would interspecific competition be most obvious?when a nonnative organism is introduced to a community
Certain species of acacia trees in Central and South America have hollow thorns that house stinging ants, which attack anything that touches the tree. The ants feed on nutrients produced by the acacias. This is an example of __________.mutualism
Succession of communities occurs because __________.each existing community changes the environment
Commensalism is ________.an interaction between species that benefits one of the species but neither harms nor helps the other species
Plants ________ to protect themselves from herbivores.use chemical toxins
What happens to the number of species in a community as the area of that community increases?the number of species in the community increases
The poison-arrow frogs Dendrobates of tropical America are all brightly colored and have very similar patterns. Although each species is distasteful to predators and all possess toxic skin secretions, some of the species live quite separate from the others.

The adaptive relationship among these species is best termed __________.

Mullerian mimicry
Flounder is a type of fish that looks like the seafloor. This is an example of __________.cryptic coloration
The sum of a species’ use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment is called __________.ecological niche
Similar species can coexist in a community by using _________.resource partitioning
Examples of defensive adaptations include all of the following except ________.predation
In an area where soil has not yet formed, called primary succession, the life-forms that are first found are _________.prokaryotes and protists
In the North Pacific, sea otters are keystone predators. A reduction in their numbers has resulted in what changes in the marine community?Decreased community diversity
A zoonotic pathogen is _________.transferred to humans from animals
What is the key difference between a dominant species and a keystone species?dominant species are most abundant, keystone species exert control through important roles or niches
The flower fly resembles a honeybee, but the flower fly has no stinger. This is an example of __________.Batesian mimicry
Facilitation is _________.an interaction where species have positive effects on the reproduction and survival of other species without necessarily living in the direct and intimate contact of symbiosis
The relationship between an organism and individuals of other species in a community involves _________.interspecific interactions
When interspecific competition has an outcome called competitive exclusion, _________.the inferior competitor will be eliminated
Bioremediation is a process that _________.uses organisms to detoxify polluted ecosystems
The biggest difference between the flow of energy and the flow of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem is that __________.nutrients are recycled but energy is not
The direct product of nitrogen fixation is __________.NH3
Increased rates of decomposition occur in ________ ecosystems.tropical
The percentage of energy stored in assimilated food that is not used for respiration is the _________.production efficiency
The phosphorus cycle lacks a(n) __________ component.atmospheric
Deforestation of a watershed _______.dramatically increases the flow of water and minerals out of the watershed
Primary producers are _________.autotrophs
Biological augmentation is a process that _________.uses organisms to add essential materials to a degraded ecosystem
A measure of the total primary production in an ecosystem is called the _________.gross primary production
The global hydrologic cycle supports a net flow of atmospheric water vapor __________.from oceans to land
An example of restoration ecology is ________.restoring seaweed and seagrass beds of fish and shellfish nurseries
A measure of production that is calculated by subtracting autotrophic respiration from all primary production in an ecosystem is called _________.net primary production
Which of the following statements is true?over oceans, evaporation exceeds precipitation
The law of conservation of mass is important in ecology because _________.it allows scientists to determine the gain or loss of a chemical element in an ecosystem
Eutrophication in lakes is frequently the direct result of __________.nutrient enrichment such as nitrate and phosphate runoffs from land
A study of metabolic rates in a terrestrial community showed that the energy released by respiration exceeded the energy captured in photosynthesis. Which of the following situations is most likely?community biomass is decreasing
In an ecosystem, all incoming energy will eventually be __________.dissipated into space as heat
The percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next-higher level is called ________.trophic efficiency
Local conditions such as heavy rainfall or the removal of plants may limit the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, or calcium available to a particular ecosystem, but the amount of carbon available to the system is seldom a problem. Why?Many nutrients come from the soil, but carbon comes from the air.
What is the main abiotic reservoir for elements involved in local biogeochemical cycles, such as calcium and phosphorus?soil
Detritivores are _________.heterotrophs
Most of the sunlight that reaches Earth __________.is not captured for use by living things
A measure of the total biomass accumulation during a given period of time is called the _________.net ecosystem production
How do iron levels affect phytoplankton populations in a marine ecosystem?Iron stimulates the growth of cyanobacteria, which convert atmospheric N2 to nitrogenous minerals, stimulating the growth of phytoplankton.
Important biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems include all of the following except the ________ cycle.potassium
The amount of chemical energy in a consumer’s food that is converted to its own new biomass over a period of time is called __________.secondary production
Which of the following is an ecosystem?all of the organisms living in your aquarium and the abiotic factors with which they interact
The main decomposers in an ecosystem are __________.fungi and prokaryotes
In a working ecosystem such as the arctic tundra, all of the following exist except _______.a reduction in the competition for resources
The natural human connection to nature and other forms of life is called __________.biophilia
Scientists from Russia and Japan are attempting to resurrect the extinct woolly mammoth __________.by using bone marrow
Which of the following is thought to be a possible consequence of rising CO2 levels?Increased vegetative productivity
One of the most impressive models of sustainable development can be seen in the __________.Costa Rican zoned reserves
Mining and forestry result in _________.habitat loss
Loss of “flying foxes” would impact ecosystem diversity because ________.these bats are important pollinators and seed dispersers in the Pacific Islands and their loss would harm plant diversity
The reason for the decline of the greater prairie chicken in Illinois was _________.a decrease in fertility due to lack of genetic diversity in the population
A small population that inbreeds may ________.be drawn into extinction vortex
The branch of biology that is important in controlling overharvesting is _________.molecular biology
An exotic species is a(n) _________.introduced species
Which statement below describes a finding of researchers who studied the decline of red-cockaded woodpeckers?Individuals generally have a better chance of reproducing by remaining behind than by dispersing and excavating homes in new territories.
An example of investing in ecosystem services is _________.the $1 billion that New York City invested to buy land and restore the Catskill Mountains
Mark Shaffer, of Duke University, studied grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park to determine this threatened species’ _________.minimal viable population
What did the researchers do that caused red-cockaded woodpeckers to form new breeding groups at new sites?Constructed nesting cavities at new sites
The technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) uses a polymerase from _________.Thermus aquaticus
The three levels of biodiversity in the correct order are _________ diversity.genetic, species, and community/ecosystem
The rosy periwinkle from Madagascar is important because _________.it contains alkaloids that inhibit cancer cell growth
An endangered species is one that ________.is in danger of extinction
Ozone is __________.beneficial in the upper atmosphere
How do climatologists estimate past atmospheric CO2 concentrations?Climatologists measure the CO2 concentrations in air bubbles trapped in glacial ice.
The greatest cause of extinction of species today is __________.habitat alteration
A relatively small area with numerous endemic species and a large number of endangered or threatened species is called a _________.biodiversity hot spot
The science that integrates all aspects of biology is called _________.conservation biology
__________ are the most affected by toxic compounds in the environment because __________.Top-level carnivores; the biomass at any given trophic level is produced from a larger biomass ingested at the level below
What Central American country is a world leader in zoned reserves?Costa Rica
Connections between habitat fragments are referred to as __________.movement corridors
Which of the following groups is most severely threatened with extinction?Amphibians
The destruction of the ozone layer is most directly linked to __________.release of CFCs into atmosphere
What is one viable solution to help increase the effective size and genetic variation in the grizzly bear population in Yellowstone National Park?Conservation biologists could introduce just two new bears each decade from another population.
Crop pollination, water purification, and moderation of weather extremes are just a few examples of __________.ecosystem services