Adolescence ch. 10-13
|The two main approaches to student learning are constructivist and||direct instruction.|
|In Mr. Durgan’s U.S. history class, students work in teams to explore, research, and present a topic to the class. They can choose from a list of topics or propose a topic to the teacher for approval. Mr. Durgan serves as their guide and mentor for the project. This is an example of||the constructivist approach to learning.|
|Which of the following statements regarding the direct approach to learning is NOT true?||It is a student-centered approach.|
|Jamie has a reading disability. Which of the following approaches to learning would experts recommend for Jamie?||direct instruction|
|The Common Core State Standards||specifies a minimum skills set that all children of a certain age should have.|
|Turning Points 2000 continues to endorse the recommendations of Turning Points 1989 but adds a new recommendation for schools to||engage in instruction to help students achieve higher standards and become life-long learners.|
|Being a high school dropout increases the likelihood of ______ during emerging adulthood.||attempted suicide.|
|Mrs. Grundy, a superintendent of schools, wants to implement strategies that will decrease the dropout rate in her district. According to research, what should Mrs. Grundy concentrate on FIRST?||Early detection and remediation of children’s learning difficulties.|
|The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funds dropout-reduction programs that emphasize which strategy?||keeping at-risk students with the same teachers through their high school years|
|Which of the following statements about stress in college is NOT true?||College males are more likely than their female counterparts to feel overwhelmed.|
|How much more money can a college graduate expect to make compared to a higher school graduate?||$20,000|
|Mrs. Chen has been given an award by her school district for being a highly effective teacher. Which of the following is most likely to be true of Mrs. Chen?||She is able to keep her class working together.|
|Mr. Root has clear classroom rules but students are so busy being absorbed in learning that he rarely has to enforce a rule. As a result, his students are||more likely to be motivated.|
|Which of the following factors has adolescent expert Jacquelynne Eccles identified as a problem for adolescents entering middle school or junior high school?||Teachers become more controlling at a time when young adolescents are seeking more autonomy.|
|Ross’s parents have routines for meals, chores, recreation, homework, and bedtimes. As a result, Ross is likely to||have few school problems.|
|Which of the following statements regarding parental involvement in adolescents’ schooling is TRUE?||Parents need to receive better information about curricular choices.|
|How might parents indirectly affect the likelihood of children both being victim of bullying and a perpetrator of bullying?||Supervising their children.|
|Olweus’s bullying prevention program focuses on children ages||6 to 15.|
|When implemented properly, Olweus’s bullying prevention program reduces bullying by||30 to 70 percent.|
|Jonathan Kozol, author of The Shame of the Nation, found in his visits to 60 U.S. schools in low-income areas that teachers||often employed threatening discipline techniques.|
|The “jigsaw classroom” was developed by||Elliot Aronson.|
|Which of the following statements regarding Germany’s school system is NOT true?||It has four educational ability tracks.|
|Which of the following countries has an entrance examination for secondary schools?||Japan|
|Which of the following countries has a comprehensive secondary-school exit exam?||Australia|
|A major concern of experts is that ADHD is being||incorrectly diagnosed by school teams.|
|Which of the following medications has been prescribed for the treatment of ADHD?||Ritalin|
|A written statement that spells out a program specifically tailored for children or adolescents with a disability is called||an individualized education plan.|
|Educating a child or adolescent with special education needs in the regular classroom full-time is called||inclusion.|
|Ellen Winner’s three characteristics of adolescents who are gifted are precocity, a passion to master, and||marching to their own drummer.|
|Moira, age 13, began playing the violin at age 4. Now she can play nearly as well as her father, who is a professional musician. She seems to love her music lessons, and playing the violin seems effortless for her. Moira is demonstrating a characteristic of giftedness that Ellen Winner calls||precocity.|
|Linda, age 12, is gifted in art. Her parents arrange for her to take a class in sculpture at a local college, but she does not take directions from the professor very well. While other students ask for support and guidance, Linda creates her sculptures totally on her own. Linda is demonstrating a characteristic of giftedness that Ellen Winner calls||marching to her own drummer.|
|Which of the following is NOT true of adolescents and achievement?||achievement is primarily due to their intellectual abilities.|
|Which psychological approaches stress the importance of intrinsic motivation in achievement?||humanistic approaches|
|Encouraging self-determination through personal choice in the classroom has been shown to be related to all of the following EXCEPT||Connection to parents and peers.|
|Which of the following statements regarding interest is TRUE?||Interest is more specific than intrinsic motivation.|
|Perceived causes of outcomes are known as||attributions.|
|Research has shown that adolescents show two distinct responses to difficult or challenging circumstances. One is mastery orientation and the other is||helpless orientation.|
|Adolescents with a performance orientation are focused on||winning.|
|Carol Dweck refers to the cognitive view that individuals develop for themselves as their||mindset.|
|Justin is extremely goal-oriented, optimistic, and driven. Carol Dweck would say that Justin has a||growth mindset.|
|In the study by Englund, Luckner, and Whaley regarding parental expectations of academic success, what were the general findings?||Parental expectations of academic success were related to both the level of education obtained by the child and life satisfaction in adulthood.|
|Adolescents have improved self-efficacy and achievement when they set goals that are specific, proximal, and||challenging.|
|Simon tells his mother that he wants to have all of his homework done by dinnertime every day instead of waiting until after dinner to even get started. This is an example of||a proximal goal.|
|Which of the following statements regarding social comparison is TRUE?||Adolescents are more likely to engage in social comparison than children.|
|Claire is in a program where she is matched with a member of the community who can help her to develop her interest in nonprofit organizational management. Claire is in a(n) _____ mentoring||formal|
|Which of the following statements regarding socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity is NOT true?||In most cases, deficits and differences are the same thing.|
|Researcher Sandra Graham found that middle-SES African American students||do not fit the stereotype of being unmotivated.|
|Perfectionism||is related to increased risk of depression and suicide ideation.|
|Strategies to protect self-worth and avoid failure include all of the following EXCEPT||setting low goals and objectives.|
|About what percentage of tenth-graders today combine school and part-time work?||90 percent|
|In a recent survey it was found that approximately what percentage of part-time college students were employed?||75 percent|
|The percentage of full-time U.S. college students who were employed in 2011was approximately||41 percent.|
|Jared wants to be an auto mechanic and to someday own his own shop. Where is Jared most likely to receive his education in automotive technology?||at a two-year college|
|The unemployment rate for college graduates is ______ which is ______ than previous years.||5.6%; lower|
|Career development is related to _____ in adolescents and emerging adults.||identity development|
|A student who has not yet made a commitment to a career but is still exploring options is in||identity moratorium.|
|Shelby’s parents devalue her choice of career. Shelby wants to become a cosmetologist. Her long-term goal is to own and manage her own day spa offering a range of services. Her parents want her to go to college and “become someone other than a glorified hairdresser.” Research has shown that||Shelby may be influenced by her parents’ values and beliefs.|
|Which of the following statements regarding gender and culture is NOT true?||In most cultures, the experiences of males and females are becoming more alike.|
|Which of the following countries is NOT group-oriented?||Canada|
|Which of the following countries is best described as individualistic?||the Netherlands|
|Researchers have found that _____ is related to culture.||self-conception|
|In individualistic cultures, which of the following is NOT one of the four beliefs that parents have identified as necessary for adolescent autonomy?||extrinsic motivation|
|Recent research by Reed Larson and colleagues on adolescents’ use of time indicates that||U.S. adolescents may have too much unstructured time for optimal development.|
|Rites of passage in many parts of the world provide a _____ entry into the adult world.||discontinuous|
|Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to a grouping of people who are similar in all of the following characteristics EXCEPT||ethnicity.|
|Teens in upwardly-mobile upper-middle SES families face problems in||Substance abuse|
|The federal poverty level is adjusted||for inflation.|
|Living in poverty is associated with allof the following EXCEPT||Parental disappointment|
|Karen, age 26, and her 4-year-old daughter, Meghan, are involved in an antipoverty program that provides Karen with job-skills training and provides free preschool for Meghan. This is an example of a||two-generation intervention.|
|The New Hope program is designed to||reduce family poverty.|
|Bill was involved with a comprehensive program in which he was assigned a mentor for all four years of high school. In addition, there were a number of other requirements including community service. Bill was paid for every hour that he participated in the program. This program was most likely||the Quantum Opportunities program.|
|Which of the following is NOT an area of youth concern in the El Puente program?||increasing public assistance to families|
|Recent research shows links between acculturation and||adolescent problems.|
|Which ethnic group is seen as the “model minority”?||Japanese Americans|
|Among the problems associated with prejudice and discrimination, the most likely outcome is||Mental health problems.|
|Margo sees her new classmate, Fotima, a recent immigrant from Haiti, put all of the extra bread, rolls, butter, and cookies into her backpack at lunchtime. Margo imagines that food may have been scarce for Fotima in Haiti, so she is “stockpiling” it now. Margo is demonstrating||perspective-taking.|
|A recent study of sixth-grade students in the United States revealed that _____ children experience discrimination from their peers comparable to discrimination faced by African American children.||Chinese American|
|Television viewing and video game playing often peak during||early adolescence.|
|Older adolescents spend more time listening to music and _____ than younger adolescents do.||using computers|
|Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to spend the most time using media?||John, a 15-year-old African American boy.|
|Watching TV has been negatively linked to all of the following EXCEPT||ADHD.|
|Researches suggested three possible reasons that why watching TV is negatively linked to children’s achievement. This includes interference, displacement and||self-defeating tastes/preferences.|
|Researchers have found a negative association between the amount of time children watch TV and their||reading ability.|
|Excessive internet use has been associated with all of the following EXCEPT||Poor relationships with family.|
|The developmental psychopathology approach focuses on||describing and exploring the developmental pathways of problems.|
|Researchers in the field of developmental psychopathology seek to establish links between||early precursors of a problem and later outcomes.|
|Dr. Angco is studying whether adolescents who cut themselves to relieve tension were children who did things like bang their heads on walls or scratch their arms with their fingernails when they were between the ages of three and six. Dr. Angco uses which approach?||the developmental psychopathology approach|
|Hannah, age 22, suffers from an anxiety disorder that requires her to take anti-anxiety medication in order to function at her job and in her personal life. Hannah has which of the following problems?||an internalizing problem|
|Research by Alan Sroufe and colleagues found that anxiety problems in adolescence are linked with||insecure resistant attachment in infancy.|
|Research by Alan Sroufe and colleagues has shown a link between avoidant attachment in infancy and _____ in adolescence.||conduct problems|
|The behavioral problems that most likely cause adolescents to be referred to a clinic for mental health treatment are||feelings of sadness or depression.|
|Pianta has called predictors of problems as||risk factors.|
|Which of the following is NOT one of the external developmental assets identified by Peter Benson?||positive identity|
|Cameron has just been diagnosed as HIV-positive. For Cameron, his HIV status is||a chronic stressor.|
|Teens tend to report more stress in which of the following areas?||When with parents.|
|The negative consequences that result from contact between two distinctive cultural groups are known as _____ stress.||acculturative|
|Kate is having problems understanding the concepts in her sociology class. She goes to see her professor during his office hours, and she studies with a group of students who can help her. Kate is using what Lazarus would call||problem-focused coping.|
|Which of the following statements regarding coping strategies is NOT true?||Emotion-focused coping works better than problem-focused coping.|
|What has research shown to be the most effective cognitive factor in decreasing depression severity among a group of teens who were given antidepressant medication?||support|
|Researcher Ann Masten has found that all of these factors are linked to resilience EXCEPT||community factors.|
|The Monitoring the Future Study at the University of Michigan follows trends in||drug use.|
|Carena has taken a drug that produces striking perceptual changes. Wherever she looks right now, she sees beautiful butterflies, objects glowing and changing shapes, and colors are rich and vibrant. It is most likely that Carena has taken||LSD|
|Which of the following is NOT a stimulant drug?||marijuana|
|Alcohol acts on the body as a||depressant.|
|Since the 1980s, amphetamine use among high school seniors has||decreased significantly.|
|MDMA is known on the street as:||Ecstasy.|
|Which of the following drugs is a prescription painkiller?||Vicodin|
|Drugs that are derived from the male hormone testosterone are known as||anabolic steroids.|
|Ira is experiencing impotence, premature baldness, enlargement of the prostate gland, and pain upon urination. What class of drugs is Ira most likely using?||anabolic steroids|
|Al, age 16, has just been convicted of robbery. Because of his age, this offense would be labeled as||an index offense.|
|Tyler, age 13, has brought alcohol to school on two occasions and has run away from home twice. Tyler’s acts are||status offenses.|
|Jake, age 14, has a long history of setting small fires, torturing kittens, skipping school, and fighting with his peers. His parents have sought counseling for him, as they cannot control him and fear that his behavior is getting worse. Jake meets the criteria for a diagnosis of||conduct disorder.|
|Erik Erikson viewed delinquency as an attempt to||establish an identity.|
|Belinda is a registered nurse who is employed at the Nurse Family Partnership. Which of the following activities would Brenda do as part of her daily work?||provide in-home support and training for adolescent mothers and their children up to age two|
|Suicide is the _____ leading cause of death in 10- to 19-year-olds in the United States today?||third|
|Which of the following statements about suicide is TRUE?||Emerging adults have tripled the suicide rates of adolescents.|
|Research has shown that the girls most likely to experience dieting or disordered eating behavior are those who are both in pubertal transition and||sexually active with their boyfriends.|
|Recent research indicates that the most effective treatment for adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa is||family therapy.|
|What is thought to be the most effective method in reducing obesity among teens?||Interventions aimed at changing the family lifestyle.|
|About what percentage of children who become obese have one obese parent?||40 percent|
|Yolanda’s parents are both overweight. According to research, Yolanda has a _____ chance of becoming overweight herself.||70 percent|
|Researchers have determined that, compared to clinical approaches, school-based programs aimed at reducing the number of overweight adolescents are||less effective.|
|Which personality characteristic has been associated with anorexia?||perfectionism|
|The four problems that affect the largest number of adolescents are sexual problems, juvenile||school-related problems.|
Adolescent Psychology Final
|Bryan’s parents give him anything he wants and do not expect anything from him. They tried to involve him in family chores, but he just ignored them. Bryan’s parents are using which of Diana Baurind’s parenting styles?|
|Research has shown that parents favoring one sibling over another is linked to|
anger and rebellion in the less-favored sibling.
eating disorders in the less-favored sibling.
sadness and lower self-esteem in the less-favored sibling.
anxiety in the more-favored sibling.
|Sadness and lower self-esteem in the less-favored sibling|
|The three types of stepfamilies are stepfather, stepmother, and|
none of these.
|Penny’s parents are still married but they have a high degree of marital conflict. According to research, Penny is more likely than her peers whose parents are happily married to|
engage in self-injurious behaviors, like cutting.
develop emotional problems.
develop an eating disorder.
develop a conduct disorder.
|Develop emotional problems|
|Which of the following is good advice for parents and emerging adult children who are considering living together?|
Agree on conditions ahead of time.
Treat each other as adults.
Address any concerns that arise before hard feelings develop.
All of these are good advice.
|All of these are good advice|
|Which of the following statements about conflict between adolescents and parents is TRUE?|
Parent-adolescent conflict increases from early adolescence to late adolescence.
Recent research shows that Hall’s conception of adolescence as a time of “storm and stress” is probably true.
Parent-child conflict is stronger than parent-early adolescent conflict.
Conflict between parents and adolescents is highest in early adolescence.
|Conflict between parents and adolescents is highest in early adolescence|
|What percentage of emerging adults studied whose parents divorced had emotional problems?|
|Which of the following characteristics is involved in sibling relationships?|
all of these
|all of these|
|Indulgent parenting has been associated with _____ in adolescents.|
lack of self-control
|Lack of self-control|
|Adolescents whose parents are not involved with their lives and who do not monitor their activities in any way tend to|
be shy and withdrawn.
be socially competent.
|It is likely that what percentage of children born to married parents will experience their parents’ divorce?|
|The ability to relinquish childlike dependencies on parents is called|
none of these.
|Chris gained custody of his three biological children after his divorce. After three years, he married Jennifer who had no children from her previous marriage. Chris and Jennifer’s new family is a|
|Which of the following factors have researchers determined is important in influencing adolescents’ behavior?|
parental models of competency
all of these
|all of these|
|Research has found that the result of authoritarian parenting is often adolescents who are|
angry and hostile.
|Ashley, age 17, lives with her biological mother and her mother’s lesbian partner, Daryl. According to researchers, Ashley is likely to|
develop a heterosexual identity.
develop a bisexual identity.
suffer more mental health problems than her peers raised in heterosexual homes.
have fewer friends than her peers being raised in heterosexual homes.
|develop a heterosexual identity|
|Kathy has one son, Mitchell. Six years after her divorce, Kathy marries Dan. Dan has never been married before and has no children. Kathy, Mitchell, and Dan make up what kind of family?|
|Marcia and John’s 25-year-old daughter, Serena, moves back in with them after graduate school. She cannot find a job in her field and works part-time as a waitress while searching for jobs. If Marcia and John are like many parents whose emerging adult children move back home with them, they will|
experience a disequilibrium in the family.
have few or no complaints about Serena moving back home.
try to avoid interaction with Serena and just continue their life as before.
overcompensate for Serena’s lack of financial independence by pampering her.
|Experience a disequilibrium in the family|
|Adolescents and emerging adults from divorced families are more likely than those whose parents did not divorce to do which of the following?|
have academic problems
show acting-out behavior and delinquency
experience anxiety and depression
all of these
|all of these|
|Which of the following teens is most likely to run away from home?|
Ali, who wants to be with her boyfriend, but is banned by her parents from seeing him.
Jeff, whose parents are heroin addicts and often have no food in the house.
Jeremy, whose parents fight constantly, to the point that he feels like he is living in a “war zone.”
All of these teens are likely to run away from home.
|All of these teens are likely to run away from home|
|Adolescents are most likely to have conflict with their|
|The largest group of adolescents with gay and lesbian parents are likely those who|
were conceived though artificial insemination.
were born in the context of heterosexual relationships of one of their parents.
are in foster care.
|were born in the context of heterosexual relationships of one of their parents|
|Sherry and Jason have two children each from previous marriages. When they marry, they create a|
|Greg, age 23, moves back home with his parents in order to save money to buy a house. If Greg and his parents are like many families that experience this “boomerang” phenomenon, Greg will complain that his parents|
restrict his independence.
do too much for him.
are angry at him for moving back home.
none of these
|restrict his independence|
|Eli has an insecure attachment to his parents. According to Joseph Allen and his colleagues, Eli’s attachment situation makes him more likely to experience|
good peer relationships.
none of these.
|A recent study revealed that adolescent girls with divorced parents were especially vulnerable to|
|Jonathan, age 16, has a secure attachment to his parents. According to Joseph Allen and his colleagues, Jonathan should have|
a high capacity for intimacy.
a slightly higher risk for experimenting with alcohol than peers with different attachment styles.
fewer friends than his peers, because he spends more time with his parents.
high grades in school
|a high capacity for intimacy|
|Michael’s parents never discuss their rules. If he asks for an explanation, they answer, “Because I said so; that’s all the explanation you need.” Michael’s parents are using which style of parenting?|
|The most common pattern of parenting that was found in a study of parenting behaviors in 186 countries around the world was|
warm and controlling.
restrictive and punitive.
permissive and indulgent.
permissive and neglectful.
|warm and controlling|
|Heidi, age 23, is an emerging adult whose parents divorced when she was 12. Heidi admits that she has some emotional scarring from the divorce. According to Hetherington’s research, Heidi is likely to be|
caring and empathetic to young adolescents from divorced families.
responsible and a good worker.
careful in making her decisions.
|Jeremy’s parents have divorced. If Jeremy’s situation is typical of many divorced families, he can expect that|
his mother will have less money than when she was married.
his mother will have more money than when she was married, due to child support and alimony payments.
his standard of living will increase slightly.
none of these will happen.
|his mother will have less money than when she was married|
|Delany’s parents are uninvolved in her life. She comes and goes as she pleases and she has the sense that she doesn’t matter very much to her parents. Delaney’s parents are using which of Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting?|
|Don is an African American teen who lives in a low-income neighborhood with his parents. Don’s father works two jobs to provide for his family but he always has time to listen to Don, and their weekly “burger and bowling” night is something that they both enjoy. According to research, Don is more likely than his counterparts who do not have a close relationship with their fathers to|
go to college.
stay out of jail.
have good mental health.
do all of these.
|do all of these|
|Caitlin, age 17, wants to move out of her home and move in with her 20-year-old friend, Liza. Caitlin’s parents have gradually allowed her to have a car and a part-time job and to make her own decisions about her activities, but they forbid her to move out at this time. No matter how hard Caitlin pushes, her parents remain firm. This example illustrates|
an authoritarian, controlling parenting style.
relinquishing control in areas where the adolescent can make mature decisions.
parental fear of the “empty nest.”
alienation of family members.
|relinquishing control in areas where the adolescent can make mature decisions|
|Maureen’s parents have clear, reasonable rules, which they communicate and enforce. They also are warm and nurturing towards Maureen and her siblings. Maureen’s parents are using which of Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting?|
|Recent research found that vulnerable youth who participate in positive extracurricular activities in high school were more likely than non-participants to|
enter the military.
enroll in college.
volunteer in their communities as adults.
do none of these.
|enroll in college|
|Which of the following individuals has the highest risk of divorce?|
Andrea, a 43-year-old lawyer who has been married for 12 years
Connie, a 19-year-old high school graduate who has been married for a year
Joel, a 26-year-old youth minister who has been married for two years
Harry, a 40-year-old physician whose parents divorced when he was 25 years old
|Connie, a 19-year-old high school graduate who has been married for a year|
|Tyler and Andrew like to play basketball together and “hang out,” but they really don’t know much about each other’s lives. This type of friendship is one primarily of|
|A recent study found that, for girls, achievement of their best friends is linked to the adolescent|
being involved in a team sport in high school.
being involved in extracurricular activities in high school.
taking math courses in high school.
taking science courses in high school.
|taking math courses in high school|
|There is increasing evidence that _____ plays an important role in the peer group and friendships.|
|The average age of the initial same-sex activity for females is|
10 to 14.
18 to 22.
14 to 18.
12 to 16
|14 to 18|
|A high frequency of dating in middle adolescence has been linked to|
all of these.
|all of these|
|The best predictor of whether rejected children engage in delinquent behavior or drop out of school later, during adolescence is|
low rates of interactions with their peers.
aggression towards peers in junior high school.
aggression towards peers in elementary school.
use of alcohol in ninth grade.
|aggression towards peer in elementary school|
|It is recommended that premarital education begin approximately _____ prior to the wedding.|
|Which of the following factors is associated with cohabitation?|
|Janet dates Ryan primarily because he is popular and good-looking. Which of the following functions of dating does this fulfill for Janet?|
|Girls’ friendships in adolescence are more likely than boys’ to focus on|
|Alex is described as “shy” by his peers; he has a low rate of interaction with peers. Alex is likely to be classified as a(n) _____ child.|
|When parents impose strict rules on the dating behavior of their adolescent children, the adolescents frequently deal with this conflict by|
dating without the knowledge of their parents.
having a teacher or coach talk to their parents about the norms of dating in the United States.
abiding by their parents’ rules but showing open hostility.
doing none of these.
|dating without the knowledge of their parents|
|Researchers have found links between romantic relationships and|
quality of sibling relationships.
|Travis, age 16, is friends with a group of young men ages 21 to 23. According to research, Travis is more likely than his counterparts with same-age friends to|
engage in early sexual behavior.
be highly mature.
have older sisters.
|engage in early sexual behavior|
|Chronic loneliness has been linked to|
impaired physical health.
|impaired physical health|
|Individuals who are about the same age or maturity level are called|
|The type of love characterized by the desire to have another person near and to have a deep, caring affection for that person is called|
|Which of the following is NOT one of the six functions of friendship?|
|Mrs. Brice has several adolescents in her class who are clearly regarded as “weird” by their peers. In order to change the attitude of the majority group toward these few students, Mrs. Brice implements a strategy in which|
the whole class undergoes social-skills training.
the whole class works together on a common goal of organizing a food drive.
the outcast students are paired with sympathetic classmates in hopes of raising their popularity.
none of these happens
|the whole class works together on a common goal of organizing a food drive|
|Lisa lives with her boyfriend, Jeff. According to recent research, Lisa is more at risk for _____ than her married counterparts.|
|Which of the basic social needs identified by Sullivan intensifies in early adolescence?|
the need for a secure attachment
the need for playful companionship
the need for intimacy
the need for sexual relations
|the need for intimacy|
|Providing a friend with amusement is a function of friendship called|
|Shirlee and John are both widowed and they have found that they want to be with each other and to grow old together. They both say, “romance is for the young,” and they are happy with their relationship. Shirlee and John share which type of love?|
|Being rejected or overlooked by peers can lead some adolescents to|
become closer to their parents.
be vulnerable to cult recruiters.
feel lonely or hostile.
become closer to their siblings.
|feel lonely or hostile|
|Most adolescent love is characterized by|
|Ali says that her peer group is very important to her. Which of the following things will Ali likely say her peers do for her?|
provide a source of information about the world outside of the family
give her feedback about her abilities
serve as form of social comparison
all of these
|all of these|
|Researchers have found a link between early dating and|
none of these.
|Matt is a 26-year-old single man. Although he has a great job, a nice apartment, and many friends, he is often|
seen as lonely.
seen as having trouble settling down.
all of these may be true
|all of these may be true|
|Rosemary encourages her friend Meredith to try harder in her biology class. Rosemary tells Meredith that she can get a good grade and offers to give her feedback on her reports. Which function of friendship is Rosemary providing for Meredith?|
|The average age of initial same-sex activity for males is|
11 to 13.
13 to 15.
15 to 17.
17 to 19.
|13 to 15|
|James is actively disliked by his peers. He seems to have no idea how to enter a conversation with others; he frequently barges in and starts talking about an entirely different topic. Which of the following conglomerate strategies might assist James to be more accepted by his peers?|
Offer comments about the interests of the peer group.
Listen quietly and slowly ease into a conversation.
Don’t try to change the dynamics of the group.
All of these strategies could help James.
|All of these strategies could help James|
|Brenda listens carefully to her friends, controls her own negative emotions, and is self-confident. Brenda is most likely classified as a(n) _____ child.|
|Haley and Andrew, both age 12, are “going out.” They eat lunch together every day, sit together on the bus, and meet at the weekly school dance. This early relationship helps them to|
validate their attractiveness to the opposite sex.
learn how to interact romantically.
negotiate socializing in a later heterosexual group.
do all of these.
|do all of these|
|Justin is extremely goal-oriented, optimistic, and driven. Carol Dweck would say that Justin has a|
none of these.
|Which of the following is NOT a social context in career development?|
influences of parents.
influences of peers.
|Which of the following statements regarding the artistic career-related personality type is TRUE?|
Not many jobs match up with the artistic personality type.
Most artistic types have no problem finding a job that matches their personality, but these jobs pay poorly.
Artistic types like people and often use their free time to teach their particular skill to others.
None of these is true.
|Not many jobs match up with the artistic personality type|
|Luke, age 15, wants to be an engineer. If Luke is like many high-school students|
he will not be realistic about his ability to complete an engineering degree in college.
he will need help to choose the correct high-school courses that will position him to enter college with an engineering major.
he knows how to go through the college-admission process.
he knows what different careers he can have with a degree in engineering.
|He will need help to choose the correct high-school courses that will position him to enter college with an engineering major|
|People with which career-personality type are likely to be happy in jobs in teaching, social work, and counseling?|
|One of the largest mentoring programs, which pairs volunteer mentors with at-risk youth, is|
the Sweet Adelines.
Big Brothers Big Sisters.
|Big Brothers Big Sisters|
|Jared wants to be an auto mechanic and to someday own his own shop. Where is Jared most likely to receive his education in automotive technology?|
at a two-year college
at a vocational high school
at a four-year institution
on the job
|A two-year college|
|Rewards and punishments are _____ in adolescents’ motivation.|
|Mrs. Hynes meets with Devon to discuss his low grade in her class. Educational psychologists recommend getting adolescents to attribute their poor performance to internal factors. Which of the following statements by Devon would indicate to Mrs. Hynes that he has this concept?|
“Your tests are almost impossible to pass.”
“When you walk up and down the aisles while I am taking a test, you make me nervous.”
“I am working too many hours at my job and I have not been putting in the time to study.”
“My house is too noisy; I share a room with my younger brother and he is a jerk!”
|“I am working too many hours at my job and I have not been putting in the time to study”|
|Jerry’s friends are aggressive towards other students, and they frequently disrupt classes with their behaviors. A recent study indicates that Jerry’s choice of friends is linked to|
a higher likelihood of depression.
a lower likelihood of graduating from high school.
a higher likelihood of participating in extracurricular activities.
a lower likelihood of skipping school.
|A lower likelihood of graduating from high school|
|Byron hears that his friend, Tim, got a 77 on his last health science test; Byron got a 91 on the same exam. Byron thinks, “I’m better at this health science material than Tim.” Byron is engaging in|
|Claire is in a program where she is matched with a member of the community who can help her to develop her interest in nonprofit organizational management. Claire is in a(n) _____ mentoring program.|
|Otis is controlling and he can sometimes be mean. He says, “This is me; take it or leave it. I’m not able to change.” According to Carol Dweck, Otis|
has an antisocial personality disorder.
has a fixed mindset.
is expressing learned helplessness.
is not sufficiently motivated to change.
|Has a fixed mindset|
|Marion, age 38, has a 2-year-old son. Since his birth, she has remained home, and she loves being a stay-at-home mother. She enjoyed all of the years that she was a successful advertising executive, but she has no plans to return to paid work until her son is in school. Marion’s choice is|
not typical of today’s professional women; they are more apt to want to have a career and a family.
very typical of today’s professional women.
somewhat atypical; most women today try to work from home while they are raising their children.
atypical; most professional women have nannies to raise their children while they devote themselves to climbing the career ladder.
|not typical of today’s professional women; they are more apt to want to have a career and a family|
|About what percentage of tenth-graders today combine school and part-time work?|
|Adolescents with a performance orientation are focused on|
|Simon tells his mother that he wants to have all of his homework done by dinnertime every day instead of waiting until after dinner to even get started. This is an example of|
a proximal goal.
a distal goal.
an optimal goal.
none of these.
|a proximal goal|
|Marina values nonconformity and sometimes has difficulty in social relationships. According to Holland, she probably scores highly in the _____ career-related personality type.|
|In a recent survey it was found that approximately what percentage of part-time college students were employed?|
|Self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort are all _____ in adolescents’ motivation.|
|Perceived causes of outcomes are known as|
|Which of the following statements regarding college students and work is TRUE?|
As the number of hours of work increases, so does the likelihood of dropping out of school.
Most colleges try to reserve some sections of classes for working students to make scheduling easier for these students.
Most colleges restrict the number of hours that students can work and still remain in good standing.
All of these are true.
|as the number of hours of work increases, so does the likelihood of dropping out of school|
|Elena, a college junior, has gradually been increasing her hours at her job. According to research, Elena may|
develop a sleep disorder due to anxiety.
see a decrease in her grades.
have fewer financial concerns than her friends.
experience all of these.
|see a decrease in her grades|
|Shelby’s parents devalue her choice of career. Shelby wants to become a cosmetologist. Her long-term goal is to own and manage her own day spa offering a range of services. Her parents want her to go to college and “become someone other than a glorified hairdresser.” Research has shown that|
Shelby will ignore her parents and pursue her dream.
Shelby may be influenced by her parents’ values and beliefs.
Shelby will probably change her mind and go to college to please her parents.
Shelby will do none of these.
|Shelby may be influenced by her parents’ values and beliefs|
|The career-related personality type that is characterized by indifference to social relationships, troubled emotional situations, and aloofness is the _____ type.|
|Luz’s neighbor, Dr. Spire, is a professor of sociology at a community college. Dr. Spire takes Luz to class with her when Luz is on school vacation, and she encourages Luz to think about attending college. Luz has great respect for Dr. Spire, and Dr. Spire loves watching Luz grow more confident in her ability to go on to college. This is an example of|
|Wes takes a career-personality test that says that he would be best suited for a career as a farmer, truck driver, or pilot. These careers match which of the career-related personality types identified by John Holland?|
|Mrs. Sands is a school counselor. When interviewed about what she likes LEAST about her job, research has shown that she is most likely to say,|
“I have too many students to advise and not enough time in my day.”
“School psychologists should be doing this job; I need to focus on students with mental health issues.”
“Kids today don’t want my help; I have too much ‘down time’.”
“My job is becoming obsolete; most school districts are contracting out to neighborhood career centers to help students choose their careers”
|” I have too many students to advise and not enough time in my day”|
|Carol Dweck refers to the cognitive view that individuals develop for themselves as their|
|Claudia is a 23-year-old emerging adult. Her transition from school to work is most strongly influenced by her|
level of education.
|level of education|
|Adolescents have improved self-efficacy and achievement when they set goals that are specific, proximal, and|
easy to attain.
|Rod’s science teacher has a list of objectives that must be met for the year but they can be met by completing many different types of assignments. The teacher allows the students to select the projects that interest them, and the students set their own goals and make their own plans to reach them. According to research, Rod is likely to|
have higher achievement gains in science.
pick the easiest assignments even if some of the more difficult ones interest him more.
do a poor job on his assignments because he picked them rather than the teacher.
do none of these.
|have higher achievement gains in science|
|Kayla, an honors student, received a C+ on her report on Pearl Harbor. She says that the teacher doesn’t like her because she is an atheist and her teacher is a very religious woman. She believes that she received a low grade because of this dislike. Kayla is making _____ about the cause of her low paper grade.|
an external attribution
an internal attribution
a fictional finalism
a paranoid delusion
|an external attribution|
|Research has shown that spending over 15 hours of time in paid labor while in school|
is associated with developing a good work ethic.
helps students to learn time management and social skills.
exposes students to good adult mentors.
does none of these.
|does none of these|
|Mr. Hegy plans his lessons to provide a framework for student learning, and he has positive expectations for all of his students. According to research, Mr. Hegy’s students are likely to be|
|In the United States an event that comes closest to culture-wide rite of passage is|
getting a drivers license.
graduation from college.
high-school senior prom.
|Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to a grouping of people who are similar in all of the following characteristics EXCEPT|
|Which of the following countries is best described as collectivistic?|
|Researchers have found a negative association between the amount of time children watch TV and their|
|Which of the following results was found in a recent study of participants in online teen chat rooms?|
Older participants (18 to 24) disclosed the most information.
Younger participants (10 to 13) disclosed the most about their identity.
Females discussed sex in an explicit way.
Males discussed sex in an implicit way.
|Younger participants ( 10 to 13) disclosed the most about their identity|
|Mateo, age 15, does his homework while listening to his MP3 player; he also keeps his cell phone on his desk so that he can text his friends at the same time. Mateo is engaged in|
competing media balancing.
none of these.
|Despite the advances in technology, adolescents still need to develop non-technological skills, including|
good communication skills.
the ability to solve problems.
the ability to think creatively.
all of these.
|all of these|
|Ethnicity is based on all of the following EXCEPT|
|Polly, age 14, is a Protestant girl, who is preparing for confirmation. Her friend Joel, age 13, is a Jewish boy, preparing for his bar mitzvah. Both adolescents are getting ready for a religious|
transition to full membership in their faith.
event that traditionally requires a large party and gifts.
rite of passage.
none of these
|Rite of passage|
|Which of the following has become the most popular online hangout for college students?|
|The tendency to favor one’s own cultural group over other groups is known as|
|Kelani goes on to an online chat room to find people who share her interest in building a peace pagoda in her state. She is most likely communicating with|
extended family members.
people from her local area.
|Sheila, age 14, tells you that she has almost 200 friends in her online network. She is most likely a member of|
|After posting pictures of herself on Facebook drinking beer and smoking, Jocylyn, age 19, applies for a job in an upscale boutique. The manager does not hire Jocylyn, saying that her posting on Facebook indicated that she did not have the maturity that the shop manager considered necessary. Jocylyn should know that|
it is illegal to discriminate against her on the basis on any pictures that she placed on Facebook.
more employers are checking online sites like MySpace and Facebook as part of a screening process for applicants.
colleges cannot use any information that they find on online sites such as Facebook to see if underage students are drinking or violating any college policies.
none of these is true.
|more employers are checking online sites like MySpace and Facebook as part of a screening process for applicants.|
|Researchers have found that _____ is related to culture.|
|Reed comes from a low-SES background. He is consistently on the honor roll and has been offered a scholarship to a local college. Which of the following factors is MOST likely to have contributed to his success?|
parental support and sacrifice
community block grants to improve his school
a strong religious faith
|Parental support and sacrifice|
|Recent research by Reed Larson and colleagues on adolescents’ use of time indicates that|
U.S. adolescents may have too much unstructured time for optimal development.
U.S. adolescents need unstructured time to decrease their consistently high stress levels.
volunteer activities have no more relaxation value than unstructured time.
none of these are true.
|U.S adolescents may have too much unstructured time for optimal development|
|Immigrants from different ethnicity have different|
reasons for migrating.
social and historical backgrounds.
all of these.
|All of these|
|Television viewing and video game playing often peak during|
|Ceremonies or rituals that mark an individual’s transition from one status to another are called|
rites of maturity.
rites of passage.
|Rites of passage|
|Which of the following countries is best described as individualistic?|
|When Keith is asked why he does not participate in the monthly visits to nursing homes with his church’s youth group, he says, “I cannot stand old people; they have all wrinkles and other gross stuff!” This is an example of|
|Researchers have found a high level of television viewing in youth is linked to a greater incidence of|
Type 1 diabetes.
|Compared to their peers with more economic advantages, poor children and adolescents experience all of the following EXCEPT|
their homes are more crowded and noisy.
they watch more television and have less access to books and computers.
their homes are more violent and chaotic.
their parents monitor their school activities more closely.
|their parents monitor their school activities more closely|
|Which of the following countries is NOT group-oriented?|
|Which ethnic group is seen as the “model minority”?|
|Many of the families that have immigrated to the United States in recent decades come from|
|Karen, age 26, and her 4-year-old daughter, Meghan, are involved in an antipoverty program that provides Karen with job-skills training and provides free preschool for Meghan. This is an example of a|
parent-child educational initiative.
Head Start program.
New Horizons program.
|Recent research has shown that in many families around the world today, children are likely to be reared|
in a collectivist manner.
in an individualistic manner.
basically by themselves, with little parental guidance.
in manner that combines individualistic and collectivist ways.
|in manner that combines individualistic and collectivist ways|
|Evaluation of two-generation interventions to alleviate poverty have shown that they|
have more of an effect on the parent than on the child.
have more of an effect on the child than on the parent.
show more benefits in cognitive gains than health benefits.
do none of these.
|Have more of an effect on the parent than on the child|
|Which of the following individuals would be classified as being in a low-SES occupation?|
Joe, who is a janitor at a local high school
Andy, who sells tractors at a large farm supply store
Lexi, a preschool teacher
None of these
|Joe who is a janitor at a local high school|
|Debbie and Ron are lower-SES parents. Which of the following is probably TRUE of their parenting?|
They are concerned with developing their children’s delay of gratification.
They use more physical punishment when disciplining their children than higher-SES parents do.
They use an authoritative manner with their children.
They are concerned with developing their children’s initiative.
|They use more physical punishment when disciplining their children than higher-SES parents do.|
|Jarislaw is a recent immigrant to the United States from Poland. He has a brother who came to the United States two years ago. Which of the following stressors is Jarislaw most likely to experience?|
all of these
|Dawn says of Asian Americans, “They are all so smart.” This is an example of|
recognition of homogeneity.
recognition of heterogeneity.
|Older adolescents spend more time listening to music and _____ than younger adolescents do.|
listening to the radio
playing video games
|Jake, age 14, has a long history of setting small fires, torturing kittens, skipping school, and fighting with his peers. His parents have sought counseling for him, as they cannot control him and fear that his behavior is getting worse. Jake meets the criteria for a diagnosis of|
antisocial personality disorder.
sociopathic personality disorder.
|Recent research indicates that the most effective treatment for adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa is|
group counseling with other anorexics.
|MDMA is known on the street as:|
|Hannah, age 22, suffers from an anxiety disorder that requires her to take anti-anxiety medication in order to function at her job and in her personal life. Hannah has which of the following problems?|
an externalizing problem
an internalizing problem
a latent problem
an acute problem
|an internalizing problem|
|Peers and _____ influences are believed to be especially important factors in adolescent problems.|
|Which approach emphasizes that biological, psychological, and social factors interact to produce the problems that adolescents, emerging adults, and people of other ages develop?|
the multimodal approach
the multi-context approach
the comprehensive approach
the biopsychosocial approach
|the biopsychosocial approach|
|Drugs that modify a person’s perceptual experiences and produce hallucinations are called|
|Carena has taken a drug that produces striking perceptual changes. Wherever she looks right now, she sees beautiful butterflies, objects glowing and changing shapes, and colors are rich and vibrant. It is most likely that Carena has taken|
|The four problems that affect the largest number of adolescents are sexual problems, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and|
|Which of the following is the BEST way to treat depression in adolescence?|
cognitive behavioral therapy
a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication
|a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication|
|Which of the following did the Pittsburg Youth Study identify as a pathway to delinquency?|
|About what percentage of children who become obese have one obese parent?|
|Which of the following is used most frequently on a daily basis by high school seniors?|
|Alcohol acts on the body as a|
|Donatella has an eating disorder in which she consumes large amounts of food and then purges, making herself vomit to get rid of the calories. Donatella suffers from|
|The active ingredient in marijuana and hashish is|
|The behavioral problems that most likely cause adolescents to be referred to a clinic for mental health treatment are|
feelings of sadness or depression.
feelings of anxiety.
|feelings of sadness or depression|
|The most commonly used drug by adolescents in the United States today is|
|Addictive drugs, such as heroin, that cause a feeling of euphoria and pain relief, are known as|
|Shelley Taylor and her colleagues found which of the following gender differences related to stress?|
Males and females tend to deal with stress in similar ways.
Females are less likely than males to deal with stress with a “fight or flight” response.
Males deal with stress and threatening situations with a “tend and befriend” approach.
Female aggression is linked to the limbic system.
|Females are less likely than males to deal with stress with a “fight or flight” response|
|Which of the following are the easiest changes for school-based weight programs to create among students?|
changes in nutrition and diet
changes in physical activity
changes in TV watching
changes in amount of time on the computer
|Changes in TV watching|
|Criminal acts, whether committed by a juvenile or an adult, are known as|
none of these.
|Stephanie is using a drug that has caused her to have severe mood swings, paranoid jealousy, and uncontrollable bursts of anger. What class of drugs is Stephanie most likely using?|
none of these
|Kiptyn takes a drug that increases his heart rate, breathing rate, and temperature. He has a feeling of energy and elevated mood on this drug. Kiptyn is probably taking|
|Bonnie tells you that she takes a drug only when she goes “clubbing” with her friends. She says that it makes her feel euphoric and have heightened experiences with touch and sight. Bonnie is most likely taking|
|The focus of the Functional Family Therapy program is|
improving and changing interactions among family members.
teaching parents how to effectively punish their children without physical force.
teaching parents to collaborate with police officers to “scare straight” their children.
none of these.
|imporving and changing interactions among family members|
|Cigarette smoking peaks during|
|The most frequently cited factor associated with suicide is|
use of alcohol.
|Being overweight in adolescence is linked to all of the following conditions EXCEPT|
high blood pressure.
type 2 diabetes.
|Kathy’s parents use alcohol quite a bit. After they get home from work, they drink steadily all evening and, although she has never seen her parents drunk, they don’t spend much time interacting with each other or the children. According to research, Kathy is at risk for|
drinking heavily herself.
becoming angry with her peers who drink.
|drinking heavily herself|
|What differences exist between bulimics and anorexics?|
Bulimics and anorexics have about a 70 percent recovery rate.
Both anorexics and bulimics are preoccupied with food.
Bulimics typically fall within a normal weight; anorexics are underweight.
Bulimics are likely to be depressed and anxious; anorexics are more likely to be angry and hostile.
|Bulimics typically fall within a normal weight; anorexics are underweight.|
|Faye, age 17, has no appetite, no energy, and no interest in any of the activities that used to give her pleasure. In addition, she feels worthless and has problems concentrating and making any decisions. Faye has had these symptoms for a month. Faye is probably suffering from|
a major depressive disorder.
normal adolescent mood swings.
|a major depressive disorder|
|Which of the following is NOT a symptom of major depression?|
interest in activities that were not formally of any interest
loss of energy
increase in appetite
sleeping too much
|interest in activities that were not formally of any interest|
|Research shows that adolescents who have more developmental assets engage in|
more alcohol use.
more risk-taking behaviors.
less use of tobacco.
|less use of tobacco|
|Adolescents who use prescription narcotics to get high are most likely to obtain the drugs by|
buying them on the street from drug dealers.
buying them at school from classmates who are selling their own medications.
stealing them from the medicine cabinets of their parents and their friends’ parents.
making up stories of being in pain to get prescriptions for the drugs from their doctors.
|stealing them from the medicine cabinets of their parents and their friends’ parents.|