CJ Final Exam

Death-row inmates are placed in minimum security institutions. T/FF
The number of inmates held in private prisons is slowly decreasing. T/FF
More politically conservative states make less use of imprisonment than more liberal states. T/FF
All the states in America tend to use imprisonment at about the same rate. T/FF
Between 1991 and 2009 America experienced a 42% decrease in the national crime rate and a
70% increase in the rate of imprisonment.
Most people processed through the country’s jails are white. T/FF
A prison is a confinement facility administered by an agency of local government. T/FF
The number of privileges given to inmates continues to increase. T/FF
The operational capacity of a prison is the number of inmates a prison was intended to hold
when it was built.
It costs an average of $14 per day to incarcerate one inmate. T/FF
Whites are incarcerated at a lower rate than blacks. T/FT
Design capacity refers to what the prison can accommodate according to experts. T/FF
A small percentage of jail facilities, about 6%, house more than half of all jail inmates.T/FT
Violent offenders cannot be incarcerated in a minimum-security facility. T/FF
Inmates in maximum-security prisons are generally housed in dormitory-like settings. T/FF
Women account for about what percentage of the country’s jail population?12%
Which Supreme Court case held that overcrowding in prisons is not by itself cruel and unusual
Rhodes v. Chapman
________ capacity refers to the inmate population the institution was originally built to
The use of prison chain gangs, the abolition of parole, and an emphasis on individual
responsibility and punishment are aspects of the ________ model of imprisonment.
Justice model
What is the name of the jail strategy that joins “pod architecture” with a participative,
proactive management philosophy?
Direct Supervison
Inmates are generally housed in dormitory-like settings and are free to walk the yard in
________-security institutions.
Which of the following statements about jails is false?The number of males sentenced to jail is growing much faster than the number of females
sentenced to jail.
Since 1980, the prison population hasQuadrupled
________ capacity is the number of inmates that a facility can effectively accommodate based
on an appraisal of the institution’s staff, programs, and services.
________ incapacitation is a strategy that would imprison almost all serious offenders.Collective
________ incapacitation seeks to identify the most dangerous criminals.Selective
Most people sentenced to federal prison have been convicted of ________ crimes.
a. white-collar
All death-row inmates are held in ________ prisons.Maximum
The typical American prison today isminimum or medium custody
How many security levels are there in the federal prison system?5
The largest growth group in jails nationwide isFemales
Jails that are built and run using the combined resources of a variety of local jurisdictions are
Regional jails
Which of the following Supreme Court cases held that correctional officers employed by a
private firm are not entitled to qualified immunity from suits from prisoners?
Richardarson v. McNight
________ is the most secure prison ever built by the federal government.ADMAX Florence Colorado
Jails have been called the ________ of the criminal justice system.Shame
________ become(s) more important in direct-supervision jails, where relationships are more complex.Training in supervision
The majority of this country’s jail inmates areMembers of a minority group.
What state became the first in modern times to reinstitute the use of the prison chain gang?Alabama
Which term refers to the size of the inmate population a facility can handle according to the
judgment of experts?
Rated capacity
How many institutions are there in the federal prison system?103
High-security facilities in the federal prison system are calledU.S. penitentiaries.
Medium- and low-security facilities in the federal prison system are calledFederal correctional instituions
Operational capacity isthe number of inmates a prison can effectively accommodate based upon management
A number of jurisdictions have begun releasing nonviolent offenders sentenced to short term confinements due toLack of funding
What is the primary force holding inmates in minimum-security prisons?Their own restraint
Most states have one large ________ institutioncentrally located maximum security
Most states use a(n) ________ system to assign inmates to custody levels.Classification
Which level of security is highest within the federal prison system?Administrative Maximum
Which level of prison security often has chain-link fences topped with barbed wire?Medium Security
Which of the following is not a dimension that can be used to measure prison crowding?Prison’s fiscal budget
The United States has how many county jails?3,360
Female officers working in jails are what?Disproportionately skewed toward jobs in the lower ranks.
Research has shown that within six months prior to release from prison, inmates begin to
demonstrate a renewed appreciation for conventional values rather than prison values. T/F
It is a myth that al-Qaeda recruits members in U.S. prisons. T/FF
The U.S. Supreme Court has barred inmates from suing state prisons under the Americans
with Disabilities Act. T/F
The last prison riot in America was the uprising at Attica Prison in New York in 1971. T/FF
African-American women are eight times more likely than white women to be incarcerated. T/FT
Sexual aggressors in prison have themselves suffered much damage to their masculinity in the past. T/FT
Two-thirds of incarcerated women have minor children.
Research indicates that prison subcultures have been stable over time despite changes in the wider culture. T/FF
The aftereffects of a sexual assault in prison are short-term. T/FF
Fewer incarcerated women than men have been sexually or physically abused before they are incarcerated. T/FF
Most sexual aggressors in prison consider themselves homosexuals. T/FF
Some authors have suggested that violence in women’s prisons occurs less often than in men’s prisons. T/FT
A prisoner’s mail can be banned if the ban is reasonably related to legitimate penological
interests. T/F
The primary concern of correctional officers today is the effective rehabilitation of inmates. T/FF
Like inmates, correctional officers are socialized into the official and unofficial rules of
prison society. T/F
Few women’s prisons have programs specifically designed for female offenders. T/FT
Inmates have a reasonable expectation of privacy in their cells under the Fourth Amendment. T/FF
Prison language is also calledConvict talk
An enclosed facility separated from society both socially and physically, where the inhabitants
share all aspects of their daily lives is called a(n)
Total institution
The socialization of inmates into the prison subculture is calledPrisonization
. In 2009, the Justice Department reported finding ________ state and federal inmates infected
with the HIV virus.
The ________ model of prison culture suggests that inmates bring values, roles, and
behavioral patterns from the outside world.
John Irwin described the lifestyle of an inmate who takes advantage of the positive
experiences the prison has to offer as an
In The Society of Captives, Gresham Sykes described the pains of imprisonment, or the
________ prisoners experience.
Which of the following terms is prison slang for an informant?A rat
Which Supreme Court case provided a balancing test as the guideline for most inmate rights
Pell v. Procunier
In regard to religious freedom, the government shall not impose __________ on the religious
exercise of the prisoner.
Substantial bürden
A career offender, who is generally supportive of inmates’ values in a women’s prison, is
Many sexual aggressors in prison participate in gang rapes…To avoid becoming victims themselves
Which Supreme Court case provided inmates with appropriate due process before
disciplinary actions by prison officials could be brought against the inmates?
Wollf v. McDonnell
Within a few years following the end of the hands-off doctrine, ________ intervened in the
running of prisons in numerous states.
Federal courts
The 10 years between 1970 and 1980 have been called the ________ of prison riots.Explosive Decade
What word describes aggressive men who assume the masculine role in homosexual relations
in male prisons?
Prisoners rights, because they are constrained by the legitimate needs of imprisonment
can be thought of as conditional.
The ________ is the type of prisoner who thinks of prison as home and feels more
comfortable institutionalized than on the streets.
Which type of prisoners picture themselves as political prisoners?Radicals
“Rookie” correctional officers learn through socialization thatthe ideals of professionalism stressed in training are rarely translated into reality.
The majority of women who are in prison or jail are there forNon-violent drug and property crimes.
Which of the following is not a cause of prison riots?Multiple treatment opportunities for inmates
The Sentencing Project says that ________ American citizens across the nation are barred
from voting because of previous felony convictions.
3.9 million
Which state has the largest number of female prisoners?Texas
Of the women entering prisons, ________ % are mothers.80
Streetwise, young women with little respect for traditional prison values are calledCrack kids
________ among female inmates is very high.Substance abuse
. Rhodes v. Chapman dealt with which inmate issue?Double celling
Challenges to prison conditions by inmates, which are brought under the Eighth Amendment,
must show _________ by the officials responsible for the conditions.
deliberate indifference
Suits to formally request a hearing to determine the lawfulness of imprisonment are generally calledwrits of habeas corpus.
A wanton disregard by corrections personnel for the well-being of inmates is calledRecklessness
A(n) ________ is a formalized arrangement, usually involving a neutral hearing board,
whereby inmates have the opportunity to register complaints about the conditions of their
Grievience procédure
. Civil death refers toinmates denied the opportunity to vote, hold public office, or enter into contracts.
When examining the quality of medical treatment provided to inmates, courts attempt to
identify a
“deliberate indifference” on the part of the staff.
Which act of Congress reduced the number of suits brought by state prisoners in federal
Prison Litigation Reform Act
Correctional systems can prevent the transmission of AIDS throughEducation
Government agencies that function to investigate, supervise, adjudicate, care for, or confine
youthful offenders and other children subject to the jurisdiction of the juvenile court are called
Juvenile justice system
The juvenile system is more likely to maximize the use of discretion and ________ than the
adult system.
Employ diversion from further formal processing
The document filed in juvenile court alleging that a juvenile is a delinquent is called a(n)Petition
A child who has no parents or whose parents are unable to care for him or her is called a(n)Dependent child
Children who purchase cigarettes, buy alcohol, and are truant arestatus offenders
If a juvenile’s case is going to be transferred to adult court, it must be transferredafter intake, but before the adjudicatory hearing.
The federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 requires states accepting
federal funds for their juvenile justice systems to agree to separate juvenile prisoners from adult
prisoners by “sight and sound” and to
deinstitutionalize status offenders.
In the context of juvenile justice, DMC has come to meandisproportionate minority confinement.
. If the first court a juvenile case appears in is a juvenile court, the juvenile court is said to have
________ jurisdiction.
It is unclear whetherjuveniles can waive their Miranda rights
Most states consider a child who is forced into delinquent behavior to be a(n) ________
Mary, a juvenile, breaks into Bob’s apartment and steals his TV. Mary is a(n) ____ child.delinquent
The 1967 Arizona case that granted juveniles many of the due process protections enjoyed by
adults, including the right to counsel, was
In re Gualt
The child-savers movement of the nineteenth century produced theReform school
A common law principle that allows the state to assume a parental role and to take custody of
a child when he or she is in need, of care the natural parents are unwilling or unable to provide,
parents parents patriae
Under Roman law, the ______ had absolute control over the child.the father
In juvenile court, a petition is similar to a ________ in adult court.Criminal complaint
Transfer hearings are held inJuvenile court
The fact-finding process wherein the juvenile court determines whether there is sufficient
evidence to sustain the allegations in a petition is called (a)n
Adjudicatory hearing
In the face of strong evidence of the offender’s guilt, a juvenile court judge maystill decide it is not in the child’s best interest to be adjudicated delinquent.
Teen court is an alternative approach to juvenile justice in which alleged offenders are
judged and/or sentenced by a
Jury of their peers.
What is the final stage in a juvenile case?Dispositional hearing
A juvenile court disposition that imposes both a juvenile sanction and ________ is known as blended sentencing.Adult criminal sentence
In 2007, California passed a law that required that juveniles charged with all but the most
serious felonies be adjudicated and supervised
Within their country of residence
Juvenile courts across the country are becoming increasingly similar to ________ courts.Adult criminal