AP Human Geography Unit 1 Vocab

Geographythe study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere (ex. deserts, cliffs, islands, seas, waterfalls, etc.)
Globalizationactions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope (ex.Some automobiles use parts from other countries, as in a car being assembled in the United States with the parts coming from Japan, Germany, or Korea.)
Locationthe position of anything on earths surface (ex. any coordinates that lead to a specific point on earth)
Sitethe physical characteristics of a place (ex. climate, water bodies, vegetation, soil, etc.)
Situationthe location of a place relative to other places or surroundings (ex. down past the courthouse)
4 Types of Mapsdot maps, isoline maps, choropleth maps, & proportional maps (ex. all dots are equal, usually used for climate, different shades of color, dots are not equal)
Scalegenerally, the relationship between the proportion of Earth being studied, and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of the actual feature on earths surface (ex. a way to compare the size of the Earth as a whole and the size on the map)
Distortiona change, twist, or exaggeration that makes something appear different from the way it really is (ex. stretching out the ocean waters on a map to make the land area more accurate)
Toponymthe name given to a portion of Earths surface (ex. georgia, florida, alabama, etc.)
Mercator Projectiona projection of the earth onto a cylinder; areas appear greater the farther they are from the equator (ex. the map is more accurate on location)
Robinson Projectionan equal-area projection map of the globe; oceans are distorted in order to minimize the distortion of the continents (ex. more accurate on land area)
Isochronea diagram or map connecting points relating to the same time or equal times (ex. looks like an isoline map)
Absolute Locationa place on earth based on a fixed point (ex. usually identified using longitude and latitude)
Relative Locationthe location of something in comparison to the location of something else (ex. the big chicken, Kennesaw Mountain, etc)
Absolute DistanceThe distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer. (ex. the mcdonalds is 4.1 miles away from my house)
Relative Distancedistance measured not in linear terms such as miles or kilometers but in terms such as cost and time (ex. it takes 10 minutes to get to my house)
Regionalizationthe process of dividing an area into smaller segments called regions (ex. just like the U.S. divided us North, South, East, and West)
Formal/Uniform Regionsone or more measurable, shared traits that distinguish them from the surrounding area (ex. of characteristics: language, religion, etc.)
(ex. physical features: valleys, mountains, etc.)
Functional/Nodal Regiona system of interactions (ex. a bicycle tire; the central axel represents all the activity, the spokes represent links to outside areas through transportation, communication and trade)
Perceptual/Vernacular Regionthe way people’s feelings reflect an area (ex. “I LOVE living in Georgia!”)
Mental Mapa persons point of view perception of their area of interaction (ex. I know that down the street is the Publix, Walgreens, and the UPS)
Natural Landscapethe original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by mankind (ex. Kennesaw was a battlefield before it was a city)
Built Landscapean area of land represented by its features and patterns of human occupation and use of natural resources (ex. New York, California, etc.)
Cultural Landscapea combination of cultural features, economic features, and physical features (ex. landscapes that have there own way of living)
Hearththe region from which innovative ideas originate (ex. Dodge car company originated in Michigan)
Relocation Diffusionthe spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another (ex. because of hurricane Katrina many people moved north)
Expansion Diffusionthe spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process (ex. technology such as television, and the internet)
Hierarchical Diffusionthe spread of an idea from persons or nodes to authority or power to other persons or places (ex. an idea like building a new walmart spreads around the country and everyone builds one)
Contagious Diffusionthe rapid widespread diffusion of a feature or trent throughout a population (ex. any type of sickness, religion, etc.)
Stimulus Diffusionthe spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected (ex. mcdonalds in india changed their menu to chicken)
GPS (Global Positioning System)a navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on earthy computing the time difference for signals for different satellites to reach the receiver (ex. the device that helps you travel from place to place)
GIS (Geographic Information System)a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
(ex. the different ways you can look at a map)
Remote Sensingthe acquisition of data about earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods (ex.using a satellite to look at the snowfall)
Field Dataa place where you can store data (ex. like a flash drive, computer, etc)
Census Datathe official count or or survey of a population (ex. there are 3.6 million people living in Atlanta)
Qualitative Datacategorical measurement expressed not in terms of numbers, but rather by means of a natural language description (ex. you are very tall, your feet are big, etc)
Quantitative Datainformation that can be measured and written down with numbers (ex. your height, your shoe size, etc.)
Environmental Determinismthe belief that the physical environment affects social and cultural development (ex. the saying “island time” were life is easygoing compared to New York city where everything is crazy and always busy)
Possibilismthe theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives (ex. living in Michigan you would have a house built so that it could withstand the snow)
Distance Decaythe diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin (ex. going to a walmart far away you can get more stuff, rather than going to a grocery store nearby, and not being able to get as much)
Space-Time Compressionthe reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems (ex. taking the interstate)
Arithmetic Densitythe total number of people divided by the total land area (ex. people/total land area)
Physiological Densitythe number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture (ex. singapore has a high physiological density)
Agricultural Densitythe ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture (ex. more developed state has less density than a southern state with more unused land)
Disperseddistribute or spread over a wide area (ex. people spread across america)
Clusteredgrowing or situated in a group (ex. people in america)
Urbanizationa population shift from rural to urban areas (ex. people moving to Atl. from south Georgia)
Global Ecologythe study of the interactions among the Earth’s ecosystems, land, atmosphere and oceans (ex. used to understand large scale interactions and how they influence the behavior of the entire planet, including the earth’s responses to future change)

AP Human Geography – Unit 1 Vocabulary (Articulation)

geographythe study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources, land use, and industries
spatial relationshipstwo (or more) phenomena may be related, or associated with one another
human-environment interactionthe connection and exchange between humans and the natural world
locationposition; situation of people and things
placeuniqueness of a location (or similarity of two or more locales); phenomena within an area
scalethe amount of territory that a map represents
patterngeneral arrangement of things being studied
regionalizationthe process geographers use to divide and categorize space into smaller areal units
globalizationexpansion of economic, political, and cultural
processes to a global scale and impact (transcend state boundaries)
physical mapprimary purpose is to show landforms like deserts, mountains, and plains
political mapdesigned to show governmental boundaries of countries, states, and counties, and the location of major cities
thematic mapshow spatial aspects of information or of a phenomenon
reference mapgeneralized map type designed to show general spatial properties of features
choropleth mapuses various colors, shades of one color, or patterns to show the location and distribution of spatial data
dot mapused to show the specific location and distribution of something across the territory of the map
graduated symbol mapuses symbols of different sizes to indicate different amounts of something
isoline mapuses lines that connect points of equal value to depict variations in the data across space
cartogram mapthe sizes of countries (or states, counties, or another areal unit) are shown according to some specific statistic
map projectionsprocess of showing a curved surface on a flat surface
Mercator projectionstraight meridians and parallels that intersect at right angles, used for marine navigation; most distortion at the poles (high latitudes)
Polar projectiondirections from a central point are preserved; usually these projections also have radial symmetry; also known as Azimuthal projections
regionarea on Earth’s surface marked by a degree of homogeneity (uniformity) of some phenomenon
formal (uniform) regionhomogeneous region is an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics. The shared feature could be a cultural value such as a common language, or an environmental climate
perceptual (vernacular) regiona place that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity. Such regions emerge from peoples informal sense of place rather than from scientific models developed through geographic thought
functional (nodal) regionarea organized around a node or focal
point; the characteristic will diminish in importance as it spreads outward. This region is tied to the central point by transportation or communication
systems or by economic or functional associations
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)collection of computer hardware and software permitting spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, used, and displayed
Global Positioning System (GPS)satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places
remote sensingmethod of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g., satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study