AP Human Geography: Chapter 5 Vocabulary

Creolized LanguageDefinition: a language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Real World Example: French Creole in Haiti, Papiamento
DialectDefinition: a regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and punctuation
Real World Example: Then English dialect was first spoken by the first colonists
Extinct LanguageDefinition: a language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
Real World Example: 473 languages are nearly extinct
IsoglossDefinition: a boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Real World Example: an imaginary line that separates us with Canada
Isolated LanguageDefinition: a language that is unrelated to any other languages and there fore not attached to any language family
Real World Example: they aren’t attached to a language family
LanguageDefinition: a system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
Real World Example: English is a language
Language BranchDefinition: a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago
Real World Example: West Slavic is a language branch
Language FamilyDefinition: a collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Real World Example: an Indo-European is a type of language group
Language GroupDefinition: a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relativity recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Real World Example: a language group is the Austronesian
Lingua FrancaDefinition: a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Real World Example: English is know as a lingua franca
Literary TraditionDefinition: a language that is written as well as spoken
Real World Example: several languages lack one
LogogramDefinition: a symbol that represents a word rather than a sound
Real World Example: a Chinese logogram for a river looks like a river
Official LanguageDefinition: the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
Real World Example: English is the official language of the United States
Pidgin LanguageDefinition: a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca
Real World Example: a group that learns English
SpanglishDefinition: a combination of Spanish and English spoken by Hispanic Americans
Real World Example: linkear is the the Spanglish word for “to link”
Standard LanguageDefinition: the form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communication
Real World Example: English
Linguistic GeographyDefinition: the study of speech areas and their local variations
Real World Example: a toponymy is the study of place names
Language DiverganceDefinition: spatial interaction between speakers break down causing new words to develop
Real World Example: British/American Language
Language ConvergenceDefinition: two languages become one because of close spatial interaction
Real World Example: Areas in Asia that speak tribal languages, two of the areas combine to form a mixture of those languages
Language FragmentationDefinition: occurs when people in a country speak many different languages
Real World Example: carded by physical or cultural barriers
ToponymyDefinition: the study of place names
Real World Example: they can show us the history of a place and the culture of a people