Ap Human Geography Unit 4

StateDefinition:the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation
Example: United States
GeopoliticsDefinition:the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state
Example: border conflicts
RegionalismDefinition:loyalty to the interests of a particular region
Example: loyalty to america
FrontierDefinition:an undeveloped field of study
Example: the west was the last American frontier to be studied.
GerrymanderDefinition:to divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage to one party in elections
Example: Illinois 4th
ReapportionmentDefinition:a new apportionment of voters
Example: a reallotment of congressional seats in the United States on the basis of census results
UNCLOSDefinition:1994, constitution for the ocean to protect resources; specifically in ocean
Example: sets nautical boundaries
SovereigntyDefinition:government free from external control
Example: America after revolutionary war
ShatterbeltDefinition:an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
Example: Gaza Strip
Treaty portsDefinition:Cities opened to foreign residents as a result of the forced treaties between the Qing Empire and foreign signatories. In the treaty ports, foreigners enjoyed extraterritoriality
Example: controlled who China traded with
AnnexationDefinition:the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
Example: Texas after conflict with Mexico
Berlin conferenceDefinition:A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
Example: caused conflict since the borders set at the conference didn’t coincide with cultural boundaries
ColonialismDefinition:attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
Example: British Empire
ImperialismDefinition:Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
IrredentismDefinition:a policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country
Example: Romans allowing some identity of conquered areas
Satellite NationDefinition:Formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country
Example: Cuba during Cold War
Civil DivisionsDefinition:The part of a governmental unit which oversees noncriminal matters
Example: government recreational services
ConfederationsDefinition:the act of forming an alliance or confederation
Example: CSA during civil war
DemocrazitionDefinition:the spread of representative government to more countries and the process of making governments more representative
Example: South Korea
DevolutionDefinition:the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
Example: The devolution in Africa after the European states gave the African states their independence.
Forward CapitalDefinition:capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
Example: Washington DC during Civil War had Maryland left the Union
Domino TheoryDefinition:the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Example: China and North Korea
Iron CurtainDefinition:a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
Example: caused by democracy vs communism
Manifest DestinyDefinition:policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
Example: American Westward Expansion
United NationsDefinition:an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
Example: oversees most international disputes
SupernationalismDefinition:venture involving 3 or more national states political economic or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
Example: E.U
European UnionDefinition:international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Example: has since become a major power involving much more than economic interests
Gross National ProductDefinition:total value of all goods and services produced by a country’s economy in a year
Example: in 2013, America’s gnp was 16.99 trillion
Basic/Nom-Basic IndustriesDefinition:
Basic:Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlements
Example: Foreign airlines operating in America
Non-Basic:Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
Example: local restaurants
HDIDefinition:Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by the United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
Example: America has a .915 hdi
Agglomeration EconomicsDefinition:which like things are put together to their benefit all businesses.
Example: car dealerships being close to each other
Value AddedDefinition:the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
Example: gourmet foods have a higher value added than fast foods
EEZDefinition:enerally a state’s EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coast.
Example: Sealand is just outside UK’s EEZ
Import SubustitionDefinition:government policy of encouraging local manufacturers to produce goods that would replace imports
Example: North Dakota oil
Market orientationDefinition:tendency of an economic activity to locate near or at its source of raw material
Example: this is experienced when material costs are highly variable spatially and/or represent a significant share of total costs
Raw-Material OrientationDefinition:The location of the manufacturing plant in relation to the source of raw materials.
Example: Oil Refineries being close to pumps
Comparative AdvantageDefinition:the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers
Example: grocery store sales
Subsistence EconomyDefinition:a type of economy in which human groups live off the land with little or no surplus
Example: relies on natural resources other than purchasing them from other companies
Global CommonsDefinition:those parts of our environment available to everyone but for which no single individual has responsibility
Example: the atmosphere, fresh water, forests, wildlife, and ocean fisheries
Trickledown EffectsDefinition:incresed wealth for upper class means benifit for the lower class
Example: things that happen in the market affect the consumers
Brandt LineDefinition:divides the more developed north from the less developed south
Example: imaginary boundary splitting rich and poor
NeocolonialismDefinition:control by a powerful country of its former colonies (or other less developed countries) by economic pressures
Example: British commonwealth
Regional MultiplierDefinition:The stimulation of economic growth by growth itself. As secondary industries develop they create a demand for raw materials and goods.
Example: region impacts on how much resources cost which affects the price of a product
Dependency TheoryDefinition:structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
Example: industries depend on the poorer area for resources, so these areas affect the wealthy states
Heartland/RimlandDefinition: Nicholas Spykman’s theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest
Example: certain area of land would be valuable for a lot of power
Halford J MackinderDefinition: Mackinder’s Heartland Theory Sir Halford John Mackinder was a British geographer who wrote a paper in 1904 called “The Geographical Pivot of History.” Mackinder’s paper suggested that the control of Eastern Europe was vital to control of the world. He formulated his hypothesis as: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island Who rules the World-Island commands the world Mackinder’s Heartland (also known as the Pivot Area) is the core area of Eurasia, and the World-Island is all of Eurasia (both Europe and Asia)
Example: theory explaining that the area around the rim of Eurasia would be valuable for the conquering of the world
Roscow’s Modernization ModelDefinition: According to the Rostow Modernization model, each stage is a function of productivity, economic exchange, technological improvements, and income. Economic growth occurs when advancing from one stage to another.

1. Traditional Society
2. Transitional Society
3. Take-off
4. The Drive to maturity
5. High Mass Consumption
Example: theory explaining the levels of progress in economy