Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the:sensory receptors.
The study of perception is primarily concerned with how we:interpret sensory stimuli.
Interpreting new sensory information within the framework of a past memory illustrates:top-down processing.
Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.detection; interpretation
Wavelength is to ________ as ________ is to brightness.hue; intensity
The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Weisel consist of:nerve cells in the brain.
Feature detectors pass information to other cortical areas where complex patterns are processed by:supercell clusters.
The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates:parallel processing.
En route to the visual cortex, neural impulses from the retina are first relayed to the:thalamus.
Opponent-process cells have been located in the:thalamus.
Most color-deficient people will probably:lack functioning red- or green-sensitive cones.
According to the opponent-process theory, cells that are stimulated by exposure to:green light are inhibited by exposure to red light.
The Young-Helmholtz theory proposes that:there are three different types of color-sensitive cones.
Sensory adaptation refers to:diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus.
Giulio’s bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim’s. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim’s bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Giulio’s bag feel heavier. This best illustrates:Weber's law.
After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates:sensory adaptation.
The receptor of the eye that functions best in dim light is the:rod.
Visual information is processed by ganglion cells:after it is processed by rods and cones and after it is processed by bipolar cells.
Of the four distinct skin senses, the only one that has definable receptors is:pressure.
The sense of touch includes the four basic sensations of:pressure, pain, warmth, and cold.
The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called:sensation.
Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.detection; interpretation
Hearing a sequence of sounds of different pitches is to ________ as recognizing the sound sequence as a familiar melody is to ________.sensation; perception
Simultaneously analyzing distinct subunits of information received by different areas of the brain is known as:parallel processing.
Hubel and Wiesel discovered feature detectors in the visual:cortex.
The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Weisel respond to specific aspects of ________ stimulation.visual
I am a cell in the thalamus that is excited by red and inhibited by green. I am a(n):opponent-process cell.
The size of the difference threshold is greater for heavier objects than for lighter ones. This best illustrates:Weber's law.
The direct link between a single cone and a single ________ preserves the fine details in the cone’s message.bipolar cell
Which of the following is true of cones?All of the alternatives are true.
Our experience of pain when we are injured depends on:our physiology, experiences and attention, and surrounding culture.
According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the:activation of specific nerve fibers in your spinal cord.
Complete sensation in the absence of complete perception is best illustrated by:prosopagnosia.
The phenomenon of blindsight best illustrates that visual information can be processed without:conscious awareness.
When looking at the hands of a clock showing 8 o’clock, certain brain cells in the visual cortex are more responsive than when the hands show 10 o’clock. This is most indicative of:feature detection.
Which of the following is the most accurate description of how we process color?Color processing occurs in two stages: (1) a three-color system in the retina and (2) opponent-process cells en route to the visual cortex.
The fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by:the opponent-process theory.
The constant quivering movements of our eyes are necessary in order to:minimize sensory adaptation.
In shopping for a new stereo, you discover that you cannot differentiate between the sounds of models X and Y. The difference between X and Y is below your:difference threshold.
If you can just notice the difference between 10- and 11-pound weights, which of the following weights could you differentiate from a 100-pound weight?110-pound weight
Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light?cones
In order to maximize your sensitivity to fine visual detail you should:stare directly at the object.
How does pain differ from other senses?All of the alternatives are true.
Which of the following best illustrates the impact of central nervous system activity in the absence of normal sensory input?tinnitus
________ processing refers to how our knowledge and expectations influence perception.Top-down
Experiencing sudden pain is to _______ as recognizing that you are suffering a heart attack is to ________.sensation; perception
Berdine has developed cataracts in both eyes, preventing her from being able to identify even her mother’s face. Berdine most clearly suffers a deficiency in:bottom-up processing.
Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates:blindsight
The human ability to speedily recognize familiar objects best illustrates the value of:parallel processing.
People who demonstrate blindsight have most likely suffered damage to their:visual cortex.
According to the opponent-process theory:neurons involved in color vision are stimulated by one color’s wavelength and inhibited by another’s.
Jennifer can tune her guitar more effectively than Maria because Jennifer is better at detecting whether specific strings are playing too sharp or too flat. With respect to tone sensitivity, Maria apparently has a ________ threshold than does Jennifer.larger difference
Damage to the fovea would probably have the least effect on visual sensitivity to ________ stimuli.dimly illuminated
The transduction of light energy into nerve impulses takes place in the:retina.
The phantom limb sensation indicates that:pain involves the brain’s interpretation of neural activity.
Of the four distinct skin senses, specialized receptor cells have been identified for the sense of:pressure.
Patients’ negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure can increase their postoperative experience of pain. This best illustrates the importance of:top-down processing.
Perception is the process by which:sensory input is selected, organized, and interpreted.
Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color ________ and the shortest visible waves as ________.red; blue-violet
The brain breaks vision into separate dimensions such as color, depth, movement, and form, and works on each aspect simultaneously. This is called:parallel processing.
According to the YoungHelmholtz theory, when both redsensitive and greensensitive cones are stimulated simultaneously, a person should see:yellow.
After staring at a very intense red stimulus for a few minutes, Carrie shifted her gaze to a beige wall and “saw” the color ________. Carrie’s experience provides support for the ________ theory.green; opponent-process
When admiring the texture of a piece of fabric, Calvin usually runs his fingertips over the cloth’s surface. He does this because:if the cloth were held motionless, sensory adaptation to its feel would quickly occur.
While competing in the Olympic trials, marathoner Kirsten O’Brien suffered a stress fracture in her left leg. That she did not experience significant pain until the race was over is probably attributable to the fact that during the race:the pain gate in her spinal cord was closed by information coming from her brain.
________ processing refers to how the physical characteristics of stimuli influence their interpretation.Bottom-up
The process by which sensory information is converted into neural energy is:bottom-up processing.
The process by which sensory information is converted into neural energy is:transduction.
Holding two index fingers in front of the eyes can create the perception of a floating finger sausage. This best illustrates the effect of:retinal disparity.
The ability to see objects in three dimensions is most essential for making judgments of:distance.
Relative height is a cue involving our perception of objects higher in our field of vision as:farther away.
An artist paints a tree orchard so that the parallel rows of trees converge at the top of the canvas. Which cue has the artist used to convey distance?linear perspective
Pedro recognized that his son was closer to him than his daughter because his son partially obstructed his view of his daughter. Pedro’s perception was most clearly influenced by a distance cue known as:interposition
As her friend Milo walks toward her, Noriko perceives his size as remaining constant because his perceived distance ________ at the same time that her retinal image of him ________.decreases; increases
When the Moon is near the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. This effect is primarily a result of:distance cues, which make the horizon Moon seem farther away.
Because she mistakenly thought she was much closer to the mountain than she actually was, Fiona perceived the mountain to be ________ than it actually was.smaller
The Moon illusion refers to our tendency to perceive the Moon as unusually:large when it is near the horizon.
Racial and ethnic stereotypes can sometimes bias our perceptions of others’ behaviors. This best illustrates the impact of:top-down processing.
After hearing rumors about the outbreak of an infectious disease, Alyosha began to perceive his normal aches and pains as diseaserelated symptoms. His reaction best illustrates the impact of:perceptual set.
Although Sue Yen sees her chemistry professor several times a week, she didn’t recognize the professor when she saw her in the grocery store. This best illustrates the importance of:context effects.
Adults who are born blind but later have their vision restored:typically fail to recognize familiar objects.
Psychologists are skeptical about the existence of ESP because:many apparent demonstrations of ESP have been shown to be a staged illusion.
The greatest difficulty facing contemporary parapsychology is the:lack of a reproducible ESP phenomenon.
The sensory experience of bending one’s knees or raising one’s arms exemplifies:kinesthesis.
The perception of the letter “t” as two intersecting lines rather than as four nonintersecting lines illustrates the principle of:continuity
Lenore had been blind from birth. Immediately after corrective eye surgery, she could visually perceive figure-ground relationships. This fact would serve to support the position advanced by:Kant
Research with distorting goggles best supports the view of human perception advanced by:Locke
Rebecca was born with cataracts that were not surgically removed until she was 3 years old. As a result, Rebecca is most likely to:have inadequate neural connections in her visual cortex.
The distance between our right and left eyes functions to provide us with a cue for depth perception known as:retinal disparity.
How do we perceive a pole that partially covers a wall?as nearer
The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as closer is:interposition.
Knowing about the effects of the perceived distance of objects on their perceived size helps us to understand:all of the alternatives.
If two objects cast retinal images of the same size, the object that appears to be closer is perceived as ________ the object that appears to be more distant.smaller than
After learning that her new college roommate had experienced several episodes of depression during her high school years, Erin incorrectly perceived her roommate’s laughter as artificial and phony. This best illustrates the impact of:perceptual set.
Parapsychology refers to the:study of phenomena such as ESP and psychokinesis.
Researchers who investigated telepathy found that when external distractions are reduced:over many studies, none of the alternatives occur.
The semicircular canals are most directly relevant to:the vestibular sense.
The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called:closure.
Immanuel Kant and John Locke would have been most likely to disagree about the extent to which perception is influenced by:cultural experience.
Who emphasized that perceptual understanding comes from inborn ways of organizing sensory experience?Kant
The visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ________ in infants.depth perception
As the farmer looked across her field, the parallel rows of young corn plants appeared to converge in the distance. This provided her with a distance cue known as:linear perspective.
Distant trees were located closer to the top of the artist’s canvas than were the nearby flowers. The artist was clearly using the distance cue known as:relative height.
Of two identical horizontal bars in the Ponzo illusion, the bar that is:higher in the visual field appears to be longer because it appears to be farther away.
Each time you see your car, it projects a different image on the retinas of your eyes, yet you do not perceive it as changing. This is because of:perceptual constancy.
The perceived size of an object is most strongly influenced by that object’s perceived:distance
People perceive an adult-child pair as looking more alike when told they are parent and child. This best illustrates the impact of:perceptual set.
After hearing that Bryce had served a prison sentence, Janet began to perceive his friendly behavior as insincere and manipulative. This best illustrates the impact of:perceptual set.
Psychics who have worked with police departments in an effort to solve difficult crimes have demonstrated the value of:none of the alternatives.
The existence of convincing scientific evidence that ESP is possible would pose the greatest challenge to the:contemporary scientific understanding of human nature.
What enables you to feel yourself wiggling your toes even with your eyes closed?sense of kinesthesis
The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called:closure.
The philosopher John Locke believed that people:learn to perceive the world through experience.
Infants who were exposed to the visual cliffrefused to cross over the “deep” side to their mothers
The depth cue that occurs when we watch stable objects at different distances as we are moving is:relative motion.
Objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as ________ due to the principle of ________.farther away; relative height
The fact that we recognize objects as having a consistent form regardless of changing viewing angles illustrates:perceptual constancy.
In the absence of perceptual constancy:objects would appear to change size as their distance from us changed.
When Rick learned that many students had received a failing grade on the midterm exam, he was no longer disappointed by his C grade. His experience best illustrates the importance of:context effects.
Although he was wearing a pair of glasses that shifted the apparent location of objects 20 degrees to his right, Lars was still able to play tennis very effectively. This best illustrates the value of:perceptual adaptation.
Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to a:perceptual set.
The tendency to hear the steady drip of a leaky sink faucet as if it were a repeating rhythm of two or more beats best illustrates:perceptual organization.
Which of the following is not a monocular depth cue?retinal disparity
Which of the following is a cue used by artists to convey depth on a flat canvas?interposition
As the retinal image of a horse galloping toward you becomes larger, it is unlikely that the horse will appear to grow larger. This best illustrates the importance of:size constancy
The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field is called:perceptual adaptation.
After some practice, Carol was able to read books while holding them upside down. This best illustrates:perceptual adaptation.
Psychics are unable to make millions of dollars betting on horse races. This undermines their claims to possess the power of:precognition.
Although a few keys on the piano were broken, Shana couldn’t prevent herself from mentally filling in the missing notes of the familiar melodies. This best illustrates the principle of:closure.
John Locke is to Immanuel Kant as ________ is to ________.nurture; nature
Brightness is to intensity as hue is to:wavelength
Some stroke victims lose the capacity to perceive motion but retain the capacity to perceive shapes and colors. Others lose the capacity to perceive colors but retain the capacity to perceive movement and form. These peculiar visual disabilities best illustrate our normal capacity for:parallel processing.
In the opponent-process theory, the three pairs of processes are:red-green, blue-yellow, black-white
Weber’s law states that:the jnd for any stimulus is a constant proportion.
The classic gate-control theory suggests that pain is experienced when small nerve fibers activate and open a neural gate in the:spinal cord
The ability of newly hatched chicks to perceive depth best serves to support the views of:Kant
When two familiar objects of equal size cast unequal retinal images, the object that casts the smaller retinal image will be perceived as being:more distant than the other object.
Pedro recognized that his son was closer to him than his daughter because his son partially obstructed his view of his daughter. Pedro’s perception was most clearly influenced by a distance cue known as:Interposition
Railroad tracks appear to converge in the distance. This provides a cue for depth perception known as:linear perspective.
As we move, viewed objects cast changing shapes on our retinas, although we do not perceive the objects as changing. This is part of the phenomenon of:perceptual constancy.
The phenomenon of size constancy is based upon the close connection between an object’s perceived ________ and its perceived ________.size; distance
Your friend tosses you a frisbee. You know that it is getting closer instead of larger because of:size constancy.
Experiments with distorted visual environments demonstrate that:humans adapt readily, while lower animals typically do not.
Although carpenter Smith perceived a briefly viewed object as a screwdriver, police officer Wesson perceived the same object as a knife. This illustrates that perception is guided byperceptual set.
The horizon Moon appears to shrink in size if it is viewed through a narrow tube that eliminates the perception of distance cues. This best illustrates the importance of:context effects.
The predictions of leading psychics are:all of the alternatives.
Receptor cells for kinesthesis are located in the:muscles, tendons, and joints.
The principles of connectedness and closure best illustrate that:sensations are organized into meaningful patterns.
According to the philosopher ________, we learn to perceive the world.Locke
Which of the following influences perception?all of the alternatives