chapter 12 exam

TemporalAuditory area.
ParietalPrimary sensory cortex.
FrontalSomatic motor cortex
FrontalMotor speech area
FrontalPremotor area
OccipitalVisual area.
TemporalLanguage/speech comprehension area.
ParietalTaste (gustatory) area.
FrontalSeat of intelligence, abstract reasoning
ThalamusA major relay station for sensory information ascending to primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Contains many specialized nuclei.
Prefrontal areaThis brain area associates experiences necessary for the production of abstract ideas, judgment, and conscience.
Primary motor cortexThe axons from this area form the major pyramidal tracts.
HypothalamusThis area is the main visceral control center of the body.
Stage 4The stage when vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) reach their lowest normal levels.
REMIndicated by movement of the eyes under the lids; dreaming occurs.
Stage 3Theta and delta waves begin to appear.
Stage 1Very easy to awaken; EEG shows alpha waves; may even deny being asleep.
Stage 2Typified by sleep spindles.
REMBegins about 90 minutes after the onset of sleep.
REMNecessary for emotional health; may be neural ʺdebugging.ʺ
are involved in the emotional aspects of perceptionThe nonspecific ascending pathways ________.
hypothalamusThe superchiasmatic nucleus is found in the ________.
ponsNuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the ________.
cerebellar white matterThe arbor vitae refers to ________.
midbrain, medulla, and ponsThe brain stem consists of the ________.
temporal lobeThe primary auditory cortex is located in the ________.
carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellumSpinocerebellar tracts ________.
inside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor rootThe spinal cord has gray matter on the ________.
arachnoid and piaThe subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?
medullaThe vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.
the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cordCell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.
longitudinal fissureThe fissure separating the cerebral hemispheres is the ________.
emotional impactThe limbic association area of the multimodal association areas provides our ________.
sulcusA shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________.
is formed mostly by the choroid plexusesThe cerebrospinal fluid ________.
the spinal cord may be affectedIf the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly ________.
frontal from parietalThe central sulcus separates which lobes?
lateral spinothalamicNeural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be ________.
fiber tractsWhich of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?
is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperatureThe hypothalamus ________.
myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibersThe white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
rubrospinalA lateral tract in the spinal cord would be ________.
paraplegiaAn individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________.
upper motor neuronsSpastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.
gyriThe frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________.
structurally distinct cortical areasBrodmannʹs numbering refers to ________.
pyramidal and corticospinalTwo terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________.
visual association areaAn individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.
is considered a motor speech areaBrocaʹs area ________.
corresponding areas of the two hemispheresThe function of commissures is to connect ________.
metabolic waste such as ureaThe blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.
substantia nigraWhich of the following is not part of the basal nuclei?
caudate nucleusAll of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________.
third ventricleWhich of the following is not a midbrain structure?
consolidationThe process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________.
indicates a normal frequency range of 1-30 HzAn electroencephalogram ________.
reticular formationThe brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ________.
red blood cellsWhich of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?
temporary skeletal muscle paralysis, except for the extrinsic eye musclesREM sleep is associated with ________.
slurred speechMr. Hom was injured in an accident that completely severed his spinal cord at the level of T12. You would expect to find all of the following except ________.
loss of proprioceptionInjury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.
contains the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tractsWhite matter of the spinal cord ________.
Despite some neuronal loss, changing synaptic connections support additional learning throughout life.Which statement about aging is most accurate?
motor-anteriorWhich association is most accurate?
reflects the number of neurons firing synchronouslyBrain wave amplitude ________.
mammillary bodyDeclarative memory is not stored in the ________.
has symptoms that are the opposite of Parkinsonʹs diseaseHuntingtonʹs disease ________.
skill learningThe corpus striatum plays a special role in ________.
is facilitated by the release of norepinephrineStoring information in long-term memory ________.
vestibular nucleiImportant nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ________.
medullaWhich of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?
visceral sensory areaThe area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________.
Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time.Which statement about coma is true?
Parkinsonʹs diseaseTremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ________.
concussionWhich is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury?
is the ability to learn specific informationDeclarative memory ________.
red nucleiWhich of the following is/are involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)?
Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.Which statement is not true?
Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor.Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?
cerebral cortexWhite matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations, with the exception of the ________.
thalamusSecond-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the ________.
premotor cortexLoss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________.
Theta________ waves are not normal for adults but are common for children.
central canalThe fourth ventricle is continuous with the ________ of the spinal cord.
corpus callosumThe large tract that connects the right and left sides of the brain is called the ________.
ponsThe ________ is a conduction pathway between higher and lower brain centers and houses nuclei for cranial nerves V-VII.
pituitary glandThe infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the ________.
arachnoid villiThe ________ are valvelike and protrude externally through the dura mater to absorb cerebrospinal fluid into venous blood.
dorsalSensory neurons enter the spinal cord via the ________ horn.
Skill________ memory requires practice, and is remembered by doing.
diencephalonThe ________ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
pyramidsThe two longitudinal ridges on the medulla oblongata where many descending fibers cross over are called the ________.
substantia nigraThe largest nuclear mass in the midbrain is the ________.
theta; deltaIn stage 3 sleep, ________ and ________ waves appear.
amygdalaThe ________ is the main switch station for memory; if the right and left areas are damaged, the past is lost.
Circadian________ rhythm is a 24-hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness.
Sleep apnea________ is a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep found most commonly in the elderly.
Hydrocephaly refers to a blockage of the normal circulation and drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) throughout the meninges and ventricles. If CSF is allowed to accumulate, excessive pressure could be exerted on the brain. In newborns, the fontanels allow the skull to enlarge, while in adults, the cranial bones are fused and no expansion is possible.Describe the cause of hydrocephalus and explain why this condition is much more serious in adults than in newborns.
The blood-brain barrier is absent around the vomiting center of the brain stem, so that it can monitor the blood for poisonous substances. It is also absent around the hypothalamus, so that it can monitor the chemical composition of the blood and adjust water balance and other factors.Which brain areas lack a blood-brain barrier, and what purpose does this absence serve?
1. ANS.
2. Center of emotional responses.
3. Body temperature regulation.
4. Regulation of food intake.
5. Regulation of water balance and thirst.
6. Regulation of the sleep-wake cycles.
7. Control of the endocrine functions.
What seven areas of the body is the hypothalamus in control of?
This is an area of the brain that is in control of our emotions, such as fear, anger, love, hate, etc. It can be acted upon by smell (the smell of a gas, perfume, dead animals), memories, taste, sight, and self-will.What is the limbic system?