Chapter 13 – AM Psch. Therapies

Clinical PsychologyAn area of psychology that integrates science and theory to prevent and treat P.D
PsycotherapyA nonmedical process that helps people with P.D recognize and overcome their problems
Biological TherapiesTreatmets that reduce or elimate the symptoms of P.D by altering aspects of body function
PsychiatristsMedical doctors who specialize in treating P.D’s
Sociocultural TherapiesTreatments that acknowledge the relationships roles and cultural contezts that characterize a persons life often bringing them into the therapeutic context
Evidence-Based PracticeIntegration of the best available research wth cliniccal expertise in the context of client characteristics, culture, and preferences
Therapeutic AllianceThe relationship bt the therapist and client – and important element of successful psychotherapy
Pyschodynamic TherapiesTreatments that stress the importance of the unconscious mind extensive interpretation of by the therapist and the role of early childhood experiences i the development of a persons problems
PsychoanalysisFreud’s therapeutic technique for analyzing a persons unconscious thoughts
Free AssosciationA psychoanalytic technique that involves encouraging people to say aloud whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
InterpretationA psychoanalyst’s search for symbolic hidden meanings in what the client says and does during therapy
Dream AnalysisA psychoanalytic technique for interpreting a persons dreams
-Manifest ContentRefers to the conscious, remembered aspects of the dream
ex, wake up remembering in a dream about being in 6th grade and a teacher scolding you
-Latent ContentRefers to the unconscious, hidden aspects symbolized by the manifest content.
TransferenceA clients relating to the psychoanalyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the clients life
ResistanceA clients unconscious defense strategies that prevent the person from gaining the insifgt into his or her pyschological problems
Humanistic therapiesTreatments that uniquely emphasize peoples self healing capacities and that encourage clients to understand themselves and to grow personally
Client-Centered Therapyform of Humanistic therapy, developed by Rogers in which the therapist provides warm, supportive atmosphere to improve the clients self-concept and to encourage the client to gain insight into problems
Reflective SpeechA technique in which the therapist mirrors the clients own feeling back to the client “You sound angry”
Humans require 3 essential elements to grow according to roger:
1. Unconditional Positive RegardThe therapist constantly rexognizes the inherent value of the client, providing a context for personal growth and self-acceptance
2. Empathythe therapist strives to put himself or herself in the clients shoes – to feel the emotions the client is feeling
3. GenuinenessThe therapist is a real person in his or her relationship with the client, sharing feelings and not hiding behind a facade
Behavioral TherapiesTreatments, based on behavioral and social cognitive theories, which use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior
Systematic DesensitizationA behavior therapy that treats anxiety by teaching the client to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxiety-producing situations
-Desensitization: involves exposing someone to a feared situation in real or imagined way
Cognitive TherapiesEmphasizing that cognitions (thoughts) are the main source of P.D. Therapies that attempt to change the persons feeling and behaviors by changing cognitions
-restructuring: changing pattern of thought
Cognitive-Behavior TherapyA therapy that combines cognitive therapy and behavior therapy with the goal of developing the clients self-efficacy
-Self Instructed MethodsAimed at teaching people to modify their own behavior. Gives client reinforcing self statements: constructive statements
Integrative TherapyUsing a combination of techniques from different therapies based on the therapists judgement of which particular methods will provide the greatest benefit for the client
Mary has been working with a therapist because she has felt very confused and unsure about herself for the past few years. Mary’s therapist tends to be very nondirective and devotes a great deal of the session to allowing Mary to explore her identity, wants, and dreams for the future. The therapist rarely gives direct advice and instead is primarily interested in helping Mary clarify her own ideas and feelings. Mary’s therapist is most likely associated with the _____ perspective of psychotherapy.Humanistic
In the context of types of therapy, client-centered therapy follows a _____ approach.Nondirective
Antianxiety DrugsCommonly known as tranquilizers, drugs that reduce anxiety by making people calmer and less excitable
-Benzodiasepines: fast acting
Antidepressant DrugsDrugs that regulate mood. 4 main classes of these drugs
1. Tricyclics3 ringed molecular structure. Increases level of certain neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and seretonin. Reduces depression in 60-70% of cases. Takes 2 to 4 weeks to improve mood.
2. Tetracyclic4 ring structure. Effects on norepinephrine and seretonin.
-MAO inhibitors are thought to work by blocking the enzyme monoamine oxidase, which breaks these down. Not as widely used
4. Selective seretonin reuptake inhibitorsSSRI’s. Target seretonin ad work mainly by interfering only with the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain. Most commonly prescribed. Fewer side effect
LithiumThe lightest of the solid elements in the periodic table of elements, widely used to treat Bipolar disorder
Antipsychotic drugsPowerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior, and produce better sleep patters in people with a severe P.D, especially schizophrenia.
-Neuroleptics are the most extensively used class of this drug
-Tardive Dyskinesia, neuro disorder: inboluntary random movements
Electroconvulsive TherapyECT. Shock therapy, a treatment sometimes used for depression that sets off a seizure in the brain
-Deep Brain StimulatorsDoctors surgically implant electrodes in the brain that emit signals to alter thebrains electrical circuity
-Transcranial Magnetic stimulationUses a magnet to activate the brain, has not been approved the Food and Drug Administration
PsychosurgeryA biological therapy with irreversible effects, that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve the person adjustment
Socioculture Approaches in treatment
Group therapySociocultural approach. Brings people who share a particular P.D in sessions that are typically led by a mental health professional
6 Features of group therapy:
1. informationpeople receive info about their problem from group leader or members
2. UniversalityPeople observe that others suffer and feel anguish as well
3. AltruismGroup members support one another with advice and sympathy and lear that they have something to offer to others
4. Experience of a positive family groupOften resembles a family with the leaders representing as parents and other members as sibling.
5. Development of social skillsFeedback from peers may correct flaws in the person interpersonal skills.
6. Interpersonal learningThe group can serve as a training ground for practicing new behaviors and relationships.
Family TherapyGroup therapy with family members
Couples therapyGroup therapy involving married or unmarried couples who major problem lies within their relationship
Family therapy : 4 widely used techniques
1. ValidationTherapist expresses an understanding an acceptance of each family members feelings and beliefs and thus validates the person. Finds something positive to say to each member
2. ReframingHelps families reframe problems as family problems not an individuals problems.
3. Structural ChangeFamily therapist tries to restructure the coalitions in a family. in a mother-son coalition, therapist might suggest that the father take a stronger disciplinarian role to relieve the mother of some burden.
4. DetriangulationIn some families, one member is the scapegoat for 2 other members who are in conflict but pretend not to be.
Self-help support groupsVoluntary organizations of people who get together on a regular basis to discuss topics of common interest
DeinstitutionalizationLarge numbers of people with P.D’s transferred from mental institutions to community based facilities.
-rising levels of homelessness
Cross-Cultural CompetenceA therapists assessment of his or her abilities to manage cultural issues in therapy and the clients perception of those abilities
EthnicityMany ethnic minorities prefer disussing problems with parents, friends, relatives rather than mental health professionals
The biopsychosocial model of health and illness is a framework developed by George L. Engel that states that interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors determine the cause, manifestation, and outcome of wellness and disease.
Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft are what type of antidepressant drugs?SSRI’s

Chapter 13- Therapies

1. Which of the following treatments reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning?biological therapies
Which of the following statements about biological therapies is FALSE?Psychologists can prescribe drugs for psychological disorders in most states.
Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapyclearly shows that psychotherapy works.
The therapeutic alliance is the relationship between the therapist andthe client.
Clients of therapists who do not monitor the quality of the therapeutic alliance aremore likely to drop out of therapy
Research shows that _____ is the most important determinant of therapy outcome.the quality of the client’s participation
Which of the following therapies stress the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of early childhood experiences in thepsychodynamic therapies
The main goal of psychoanalysis is tohelp individuals gain insight into the unconscious conflicts that are the source of their problems.
Which of the following is true of psychoanalytic techniques?Freud believed that a person’s current problems could be traced to childhood experiences
Sean, a psychologist, told his colleague “My client must confront the conflicts he faced in his childhood and gain release from this burdening anxiety.” According to this statement, it can be concluded that Sean follows a _____ approach.psychodynamic
Which of the following is the most important determinant of the effectiveness of psychotherapy?
A. the duration of therapy sessions
the therapeutic alliance
Dr. Billings is a therapist who specializes in psychoanalysis. The types of techniques that she is likely to use would includefree association, dream interpretation, transference, and interpreting the client’s resistance to discussing painful memories.
Charlotte is a psychologist who believes in the following statement, “Abnormal behavior is the result of unresolved unconscious conflicts.” Since she believes in this statement, it can be inferred that Charlotte practices _____ therapy.psychodynamic
Your psychotherapist asks you to “free associate.” What are you being asked to do?You are being asked to say aloud whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
According to Freud’s psychodynamic perspective, what is the best way to gain insight into a person’s core problems?bringing unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness
The release of emotional tension a person experiences when reliving an emotionally charged and conflicting experience is known ascatharsis
According to Freud’s therapeutic technique, getting people to talk freelyallows their deepest thoughts to emerge.
According to the psychoanalytic approach to psychotherapy, interpretationis a psychoanalyst’s search for symbolic, hidden meanings in what the client says and does during therapy.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the psychoanalytic technique of dream analysis?In dream analysis, every dream, including nightmares, contains a hidden, disguised unconscious wish.
According to Freudian dream analysis, the unconscious, hidden aspects that are symbolized by the manifest content of dreams refers to the _____ content.latent
James dreamed that he went to his neighbor’s house at midnight and made himself a sandwich. His psychoanalyst interpreted the dream to mean that James really wanted to have sex with his neighbor’s wife. Making the sandwich was themanifest content of the dream.
In psychoanalytic theory, the term transference is used to describethe client’s relating to the analyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the client’s life.
Sherice started seeing a psychotherapist because of marital problems. She is unhappy because she feels her husband does not give her enough attention. After several sessions, she is quite taken with her male therapist because he gives her undivided attention. This growing affection for the therapist is calledtransference.
In the context of psychoanalysis, when a psychotherapist questions a client about the nightmares the client has had, the therapist is engaging in the method ofdream analysis.
. In the context of psychoanalysis, a client interacting with an analyst as if the analyst were a parent or lover exemplifies the concept oftransference.
Which of the following scenarios indicates the psychoanalytic phenomenon of transference?Derek feels attached to his psychotherapist who resembles his girlfriend.
Bruce is seeing a therapist for his depression but he is always late and has missed several appointments. He talks about sports and the weather to try and avoid facing his problems and he often becomes argumentative with his therapist. According to psychoanalytic theory, Bruce’s behavior is a classic example ofresistance.
Dr. Patterson tries to create a warm supportive atmosphere to help her clients improve their self-concepts and to encourage insight into problems. Dr. Patterson says little to her depressed client. Instead, she waits for him to express his feelings and for him to decide what he wants to do about his problems. This emphasis on encouraging self-reflection indicates that Dr. Patterson is practicingclient-centered therapy.
Which of the following is a primary goal of humanistic therapists?to encourage personal growth
Humanistic therapies differ from psychodynamic therapies in that humanistic therapies emphasizeself-fulfillment rather than illness.
In the context of types of therapy, client-centered therapy follows a _____ approach.nondirective
Mary has been working with a therapist because she has felt very confused and unsure about herself for the past few years. Mary’s therapist tends to be very nondirective and devotes a great deal of the session to allowing Mary to explore her identity, wants, and dreams for the future. The therapist rarely gives direct advice and instead is primarily interested in helping Mary clarify her own ideas and feelings. Mary’s therapist is most likely associated with the _____ perspective of psychotherapy.humanistic
Dr. Laura engages in reflective listening with Bill who suffers from depression. She waits for him to express his feelings and decide what he wants to do about his problems. According to this information, it can be inferred that Dr. Laura is practicing _____ therapy.client-centered
The therapeutic environment of client-centered therapy is likely to be characterized bywarmth and support.
Which of the following individuals is engaging in reflective speech?Alan, who agrees with Gus that he is facing obstacles at work since he is frustrated with his boss
The primary premise of humanistic therapy is thatindividuals possess the capacity to heal themselves.
“I have never been a good problem solver. I am not direct enough to be successful,” the client complained. “You do not see yourself as a direct problem solver?” responded the therapist. This conversation is an example of _____ and is typical of _____.reflective speech/client-centered therapy
_____ are called insight therapies because they encourage self-awareness as the path to psychological health.Psychodynamic and humanistic therapies
he primary goal of behavior therapy is toreduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior.
Which of the following statements is true of behavior therapies?They strive to eliminate individuals’ depressed symptoms or behaviors.
Which of the following techniques should be most likely implemented by a behavioral therapist when a client has a fear of public speaking?systematic desensitization
Jane is afraid of crowds. If her therapist uses systematic desensitization technique, Jane will be asked tolearn how to relax.
Systematic desensitization involvesexposing someone to a feared situation in a real or an imagined way.
Which of the following is a part of the process of systematic desensitization?deep relaxation
Frank is seeing a therapist for his spider phobia. The therapist first teaches him muscle relaxation and then they develop a stimulus hierarchy. Frank is seeing a therapist who usessystematic desensitization.
ll of the following are considered a form of behavior therapy EXCEPTclient-centered therapy.
Aversive conditioning can be an effective treatment forsmoking, overeating, and drinking alcohol.
As part of a smoking-cessation program, Paul receives an injection of a nausea-inducing drug and then is asked to smoke a cigarette. Even though he knows he is receiving the drug, it is hoped that Paul will associate the nausea symptoms with smoking and will thus smoke less. This example best demonstrates the procedures typically used inaversive conditioning.
Which of the following individuals would benefit from systematic desensitization?a person who has a phobia of closed spaces
If a therapist gives an alcoholic a drink laced with a nausea-inducing drug so that she or he will become ill after drinking the alcohol, the therapist is usingaversive conditioning.
Which of the following therapies represents the application of operant principles to psychological disorders?applied behavior analysis
_____ therapies emphasize that thoughts are the main source of psychological problems, and they attempt to influence and change the feelings and behaviors by changing the thoughts.Cognitive
A therapist who uses cognitive restructuring believes that _____ are the causes of abnormal behavior.maladaptive thoughts
Judy thinks she is depressed over her teacher’s criticism of her paper. Judy’s therapist explains to her that Judy’s own illogical belief—that the criticism means she is stupid—is really why she is depressed. Judy is likely to be seeing a therapist who is providing _____therapy.Beck’s cognitive
Beck’s cognitive therapy focuses onillogical thoughts.
Luanne is being treated for depression after a breakup with her boyfriend. Her therapist points out that her thoughts, and not the situation itself, cause her depression. Luanne’s therapist seems to practice _____ therapy.Beck’s cognitive
Decatastrophize technique in cognitive therapy involveshelping the client evaluate whether he is overestimating the nature of a situation.
Adrian is a cognitive therapist. He intends to help his client Troy, who feels that he is a born loser and will continue to be a loser in the future. According to this information, which of the following cognitive therapy techniques should be implemented by Adrian?examining advantages and disadvantages
A psychologist who practices cognitive therapy might try to help a patient who suffers from a major depressive disorder bytrying to get the patient to identify irrational and self-defeating thoughts.
Which of the following is a cognitive therapy technique whereby clients rate their emotions in order to gain a perspective of their situation?scaling
_____ is a technique in cognitive therapy.Decatastrophize
Cindy’s therapist uses the technique of distraction to help her deal with anxiety and asks her to count to 200 by 13s when she feels herself becoming anxious. From this scenario, it can be inferred that Cindy’s therapist practicescognitive therapy.
Which of the following is an important aspect of cognitive-behavior therapy?
A. self-efficacy
Which of the following indicates the view of a humanistic therapist regarding the cause of psychological problems?They occur as a result of client’s functioning below the optimal level.
. Tasha is seeing a therapist because she is depressed. Her therapist gives her examples of reinforcing self-statements and trains Tasha on self-instructional methods that allow her to modify her own behavior. Tasha’s therapist is most likely practicingcognitive-behavior therapy.
Carlos intends to help one of his clients who feels that he is a failure and is not capable of achieving anything in life. Which of the following cognitive therapies should be implemented by Carlos in this situation?self-instructional technique
Dr. Guerrero uses different therapies based on the benefits they provide for her clients. Currently she is using a behavioral approach to treat an individual with panic disorder and a cognitive therapy approach to treat a client with major depressive disorder. Dr. Guerrero is practicingintegrative therapy.
Integrative therapy is most compatible with the _____ model of abnormal behavior.biopsychosocial
Which of the following biomedical interventions for eliminating the symptoms of psychological disorders is used least often?psychosurgery
Tranquilizers are _____ drugs.antianxiety
Xanax, Valium, and Librium are benzodiazepines that are commonly used drug therapies for treatinganxiety disorders.
Which of the following classes of drugs are NOT considered antidepressants?benzodiazepines
_____ treat depression by increasing the level of norepinephrine and serotonin.Tricyclics
Derek is suffering from anxiety disorder and is currently under medication. According to this scenario, which of the following side effects will be experienced by Derek as a result of taking his medication?drowsiness
Avril is suffering from major depressive disorder and has been administered the drug Elavil, a tricyclic drug. According to this information, which of the following side effects is she likely to experience as a result of the intake of this drug?memory difficulties
Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft are what type of antidepressant drugs?selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
_____ inhibits the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine and is also known as serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.Effexor
Elizabeth visited a psychiatrist who, after interviewing her, recommended either Paxil or Prozac. From this scenario, it can be inferred that Elizabeth is most likely suffering fromdepression.
In addition to providing treatment for depression, antidepressant drugs may also be an effective treatment foranxiety disorders and eating disorders.
In the context of drug therapy, the widespread increase in the number of individuals taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to combat their depression is primarily due to thelesser side effects as compared to other antidepressants.
Lithium is commonly used to treatbipolar disorder.
By influencing norepinephrine and serotonin, lithium is thought tostabilize moods.
Antipsychotic drugs are used to treatschizophrenia.
Neuroleptic drugs _____.reduce schizophrenic symptoms
Which of the following is true of neuroleptic drugs?If an individual with schizophrenia stops taking neuroleptic drugs, the symptoms return.
Clozapine is used to treatschizophrenia.
Which of the following is a class of antipsychotic drugs that is administered as a part of drug therapy?neuroleptics
Chaz has been on antipsychotic medication for several weeks now. As a consequence, he is most likely to experience the side effect ofinvoluntary muscle movement.
The potential side effect of neuroleptic drugs is _____, a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary random movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and mouth, as well as extensive twitching of the neck, arms, and legs.tardive dyskinesia
The goal of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) isto set off a seizure in the brain.
The side effect of monoamine oxidase inhibitors prescribed for agoraphobia istoxicity.
Which of the following class of drugs is used to treat agoraphobia?tricyclic drugs
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment sometimes used forsevere depression.
Ivan is very depressed, and the danger of suicide is eminent. He is not responding to the drugs normally employed to treat depression. Which of the following treatments is most likely to prove helpful in reducing Ivan’s depression and suicidal behavior?electroconvulsive therapy
Gabriella has been diagnosed with depression and is currently under medication. Her doctor has prescribed her selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. According to this information, which of the following side effects will be experienced by Gabriella as a result of taking this medication?nausea
According to biological forms of therapy, when an individual is suffering from a severe episode of major depressive disorder, which of the following treatment approaches will be useful in reducing his symptoms in the short-run and provide rapid relief to the person’s mood?electroconvulsive therapy
Who among the following is most suitable for electroconvulsive therapy?Brad, who is contemplating suicide
Which of the following is a biological intervention that involves the removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve an individual’s adjustment?psychosurgery
Which of the following statements about psychosurgery is FALSE?The effects of psychosurgery can be reversed with intensive therapy.
Which of the following forms of treatment would be used only as a last resort to help patients with severely debilitating conditions?psychosurgery
Which of the following features of group therapy helps individuals who share a psychological disorder observe that others feel anguish and suffering as well?universality
Which of the following is a characteristic of group therapy?altruism
A major advantage to group therapy is thatclients have more opportunity to develop social skills.
Dr. Susan is your family therapist. She believes that to adequately understand psychological problems, she must understand the role that you play in the family system. Which of these statements supports that underlying belief?The psychological symptoms of a person are a function of the family relationship.
Among the techniques used in family therapy, validation involvesthe therapist finding something positive to say to each family member.
Taylor is a family therapist who intends to resolve a mother-child coalition that has formed in the case of her client Hannah, since Hannah’s husband does not spend quality time with them. According to this information, it can be inferred that Taylor is likely to implement the _____ technique.structural change
Elizabeth, a family therapist, tells Roy’s family that his problem of cocaine addiction is related to the dynamics that exists within their family. According to this information, it can be inferred that Elizabeth practices the _____ technique.reframing
Which of the following is a technique that is used in family therapy?structural change
In the context of family therapy, getting the family to acknowledge that the problem is a family problem and not just the problem of one individual is known asreframing.
Validation, reframing, structural change, and detriangulation are techniques most commonly used infamily therapy.
One aspect of family therapy is the idea that a family member’s symptoms are a function of the family relationships. If, for example, a teenage son is the scapegoat of the parents, which family-therapy technique would be the most appropriate to use?detriangulation
Which of the following is a goal of couples therapy?to improve the communication between the partners
Which of the following forms of treatment relies on paraprofessionals?self-help support groups
Which of the following is true of self-help support groups?Self-help support groups provide members with a sympathetic audience for social sharing and emotional release.
John, an alcoholic, does not have much money, but requires the help of a mental-health professional. He might best be served by contacting aself-help support group.
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is based on which of the following therapeutic approaches?self-help group
Community mental health programs seek to help people who are disenfranchised from society to lead happier, more productive lives through the concept ofempowerment.
In the context of community mental-health movement, deinstitutionalization involvestransferring individuals with psychological disorders from mental institutions to community-based facilities.
Given that collectivist cultures place more importance on the group than on the individual, some psychologists have suggested that _____ is likely to be more effective with people from Asian and Latino therapy
Researchers have found that when there is an ethnic match between the therapist and the client and when ethnic-specific services are provided,clients have better treatment outcomes.