Chapter 5 Phsychology

____ 1. Cognitive psychologists define learning as a ___________ change that may or may not be associated with a ___________ change.mental:behavioral
____ 2. Ivan Pavlov is best known for his research inclassical conditioning.
____ 3. __________________ is the tendency for a conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus.Generalization
____ 4. Watson conditioned fear in Little Albert by presenting a white rat with the loud clanging sound. __________ was the CS, and __________ was the US.The rat: the loud sound
____ 5. Behavior therapists prefer systematic desensitization over flooding as a behavior therapy to reduce fears becausethe process of relaxation and gradual exposure to varied forms of the feared stimuli is more pleasant.
____ 6. In operant conditioning an organism learns to respond becauseof the consequences of the behavior.
____ 7. According to operant conditioning, what is a slot machine an example of?variable ratio schedule.
____ 8. Who developed programmed learning?Skinner
____ 9. E. C. Tolman’s work on latent learning demonstrated thatrats can learn a maze in the absence of reinforcement.
____ 10. The contingency theory suggests that the learning in classical conditioning occurs because the CS is ___________ the US.predictive of
____ 11. Bandura’s research suggests that we can learnthrough observational learning.
____ 12. Observational learning research suggests that media violence provides viewers with aggressive ______, or ideas about how to behave in situations that are similar to those they have observed.scripts
____ 13. Research shows that playing violent video games is associated withincreases in aggressive thoughts and behavior in the laboratory.
a history of juvenile delinquency.
a greater likelihood of males acting aggressively after playing the games.
all of these
____ 14. According to behaviorists, __________ is any relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior that occurs because of experience.learning
____ 15. Ivan Pavlov was originally attempting to identify __________.neural receptors in the mouths of dogs
____ 16. According to the __________ perspective, an organism learns the association between two stimuli because they are paired together, not because the organism knows that one stimulus will follow another.behaviorist
____ 17. The behavioral view of classical conditioning focuses on simple _________ of stimuli, while the cognitive view adds ________ representations of the environment.pairing: mental
____ 18. What is a conditioned response?A learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.
____ 19. What usually takes only one trial to condition successfully?taste aversion
____ 20. The term extinction can be a bit misleading becausewe see spontaneous recovery of CRs.
____ 21. After the bell became an effective CS, Pavlov then paired it with a light. Eventually, the light was able to elicit the response of salivation. What is this an example of?higher-order conditioning y
____ 22. Pairing a pleasant stimulus with a fear-evoking object or situation describescounterconditioning.
____ 23. Which of the following best illustrates operant conditioning according to Skinner?.
A dolphin is given a fish every time it jumps through a hoop.
____ 24. In operant conditioning, the manner in which the first reinforced response is made canbe prompted verbally.
happen by chance.
be done while receiving physical guidance.
all of these
____ 25. Any stimulus that, when removed, increases the likelihood that a behavior will continue is called a(n)negative reinforcer. .
____ 26. Food, water, and warmth are examples of __________ reinforcers.primary
____ 27. Punishment is an aversive event that _________ the frequency of the behavior it follows.decreases
____ 28. A variable interval schedule is best described as providing reinforcement aftervarying spans of time.
____ 29. Breaking complex behaviors down into smaller steps, and reinforcing those steps sequentially as they are completed describes the principle ofshaping.
____ 30. People and lower animals have learned to control autonomic responses in order to attain reinforcement with the use ofbiofeedback training.
____ 31. Adults frequently reinforce undesirable behavior in children by ___________ them.punishing and attending to
____ 32. Media violence could __________ the expression of aggressive behavior, especially when __________.disinhibit: the media aggressor was rewarded