Chapter 5 Phsychology
|____ 1. Cognitive psychologists define learning as a ___________ change that may or may not be associated with a ___________ change.||mental:behavioral|
|____ 2. Ivan Pavlov is best known for his research in||classical conditioning.|
|____ 3. __________________ is the tendency for a conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus.||Generalization|
|____ 4. Watson conditioned fear in Little Albert by presenting a white rat with the loud clanging sound. __________ was the CS, and __________ was the US.||The rat: the loud sound|
|____ 5. Behavior therapists prefer systematic desensitization over flooding as a behavior therapy to reduce fears because||the process of relaxation and gradual exposure to varied forms of the feared stimuli is more pleasant.|
|____ 6. In operant conditioning an organism learns to respond because||of the consequences of the behavior.|
|____ 7. According to operant conditioning, what is a slot machine an example of?||variable ratio schedule.|
|____ 8. Who developed programmed learning?||Skinner|
|____ 9. E. C. Tolman’s work on latent learning demonstrated that||rats can learn a maze in the absence of reinforcement.|
|____ 10. The contingency theory suggests that the learning in classical conditioning occurs because the CS is ___________ the US.||predictive of|
|____ 11. Bandura’s research suggests that we can learn||through observational learning.|
|____ 12. Observational learning research suggests that media violence provides viewers with aggressive ______, or ideas about how to behave in situations that are similar to those they have observed.||scripts|
|____ 13. Research shows that playing violent video games is associated with||increases in aggressive thoughts and behavior in the laboratory.|
a history of juvenile delinquency.
a greater likelihood of males acting aggressively after playing the games.
all of these
|____ 14. According to behaviorists, __________ is any relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior that occurs because of experience.||learning|
|____ 15. Ivan Pavlov was originally attempting to identify __________.||neural receptors in the mouths of dogs|
|____ 16. According to the __________ perspective, an organism learns the association between two stimuli because they are paired together, not because the organism knows that one stimulus will follow another.||behaviorist|
|____ 17. The behavioral view of classical conditioning focuses on simple _________ of stimuli, while the cognitive view adds ________ representations of the environment.||pairing: mental|
|____ 18. What is a conditioned response?||A learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.|
|____ 19. What usually takes only one trial to condition successfully?||taste aversion|
|____ 20. The term extinction can be a bit misleading because||we see spontaneous recovery of CRs.|
|____ 21. After the bell became an effective CS, Pavlov then paired it with a light. Eventually, the light was able to elicit the response of salivation. What is this an example of?||higher-order conditioning y|
|____ 22. Pairing a pleasant stimulus with a fear-evoking object or situation describes||counterconditioning.|
|____ 23. Which of the following best illustrates operant conditioning according to Skinner?||.|
A dolphin is given a fish every time it jumps through a hoop.
|____ 24. In operant conditioning, the manner in which the first reinforced response is made can||be prompted verbally.|
happen by chance.
be done while receiving physical guidance.
all of these
|____ 25. Any stimulus that, when removed, increases the likelihood that a behavior will continue is called a(n)||negative reinforcer. .|
|____ 26. Food, water, and warmth are examples of __________ reinforcers.||primary|
|____ 27. Punishment is an aversive event that _________ the frequency of the behavior it follows.||decreases|
|____ 28. A variable interval schedule is best described as providing reinforcement after||varying spans of time.|
|____ 29. Breaking complex behaviors down into smaller steps, and reinforcing those steps sequentially as they are completed describes the principle of||shaping.|
|____ 30. People and lower animals have learned to control autonomic responses in order to attain reinforcement with the use of||biofeedback training.|
|____ 31. Adults frequently reinforce undesirable behavior in children by ___________ them.||punishing and attending to|
|____ 32. Media violence could __________ the expression of aggressive behavior, especially when __________.||disinhibit: the media aggressor was rewarded|