Anthropology Chapter 3 review

when did prokaryotes first appear?3.7 billion years ago
nucleotide bases in the nuclear DNA don’t include?uracil
in mammals, the male parent’s gametes determine the sex of his offspring because:the Y chromosome is present in males only.
what are gametes?haploid
how does down syndrome occur?because of nondisjunction, which yields an extra chromosome
DNA is important for protein synthesis because:it is biological code for the production of hormones and enzymes
it serves as a template for protein production
it provides the code to produce structural proteins
what do proteins consist of?chains of amino acids
what is transcription?occurs in the nucleus
RNA differs from DNA in that it uses:uracil instead of thymine
transfer RNA:seeks complementary triplet strands of mRNA codons
contains codons that correspond to specific amino acids
brings amino acids together to form polypeptide chains
what gene is responsible for lactose persistence among adults in Europe?regulatory gene
what are Hox genes:responsible for the development and location of key body parts
meiosis results in the production of:4 gametes
Human ABO blood types are:determined by multiple alleles
what are Microsatellites arehighly individualized repetitive stretches of nuclear DNA
the presence of a recessive allele:is usually masked in the phenotype
the expression of polygenic traits:is determined by genes at several loci in conjunction with environmental factors
polymerase chain reaction (PCR):allows us to use genetic methods to explore the origins and movements of populations
is used to amplify tiny sequences of DNA for study
allows us to study small amounts of DNA available in ancient skeletons
somatic cells:each includes a nucleus
they are used in multiple tissues throughout the body
each contains a complete copy of all of an organisms DNA
when is the chromosome number reduced?meiosis
Mendel’s law of segregationone physical unit is inherited from the father and one from the mother
Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortmentasserts that traits linked to different chromosomes are inherited independently from one another.
Ex: hair color is inherited independently from eye color.