Chapter 12 Mastering Biology

Which of the following is an example of a transgenic organism?a bacterium with human gene for producing insulin
Restriction enzymes _____.cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences
The process of accurately amplifying a sample of DNA is called _____.the polymerase chain reaction
Gel electrophoresis separates pieces of DNA based on _____.size
A supplemental appendix is to a book as a _____ is to a bacterial chromosome.plasmid
The unpaired nucleotides produced by the action of restriction enzymes are referred to as _____.sticky ends
Which of the following statements best defines recombinant DNA technology?combining genes from different sources
Frequently, genetic engineers use plasmids, which are _____.small circlets of DNA found in bacteria
What does the term vector refer to in genetic engineering?a plasmid or other agent used to transfer DNA into a living cell
An enzyme that “cuts” DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotide bases is called _____.a restriction enzyme
A genomic library is _____.a collection of cloned DNA fragments from an organism’s genome
Copies of cloned genes are stored in a _____.genomic library
DNA synthesized using an RNA template is called _____.cDNA
Which step in this process requires use of restriction enzymes?step B
Which step in the creation of cDNA involves the use of reverse transcriptase?step 3
When DNA from two sources is combined into one single piece of DNA, it is known asrecombinant DNA
In the process of human gene cloning using plasmids, the bacterial plasmidis used as the vector.
DNA ligase bindsnucleotides in the DNA backbone together.
When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein,the desired gene is inserted into the plasmid, and the plasmid is returned to the bacterium by transformation.
_____ are a major source of restriction enzymes.Bacterial cells
Restriction enzymes specifically recognize and cut short sequences of DNA calledrestriction sites.
“Sticky ends” areDNA fragments with single-stranded ends.
After DNA fragments with matching sticky ends are temporarily joined by complementary base pairing, the union can be made permanent by the “pasting” enzymeDNA ligase
Genomic libraries can be constructed using either bacterial plasmids or what other vector?bacteriophages
The enzyme that converts information stored in RNA to information stored in DNA isreverse transriptase
A cDNA library differs from a genomic library in thatcDNA libraries only contain information from genes that have been transcribed.
A nucleic acid probe isa piece of radioactively labeled DNA that is used to locate a specific gene.
The type of recombinant bacteria most often used to mass-produce genes isEscherichia coli.
The only cells that can correctly attach sugars to proteins to form glycoprotein products aremammalian cells.
The advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin is thathuman insulin is less likely to cause harmful side effects than cow, pig, or horse insulin.
A vaccine works bystimulating the immune system.
Which of the following statements about DNA technology is false?DNA technology is now used to create cells that can identify and kill cancer cells.
Golden Rice is golden in color because it is rich inbeta-carotene
A transgenic animal isan animal containing a gene from another organism, typically of another species.
Which of the following genetically modified organisms has not been developed by genetic engineers (at least, not yet)?transgenic corn with the gene for human insulin
Which of the following has not been a significant issue in the creation of genetically modified (GM) organisms?the fact that GM organisms cannot be modified to prevent them from reproducing once they pass beyond the experimental stage
What purpose does a nucleic acid probe serve?It helps identify genes that have been inserted into bacterial plasmids.
Insulin used for the treatment of diabetes in humans is now obtained from _____.bacteria
The production of genetically identical animals that are carrying recombinant human genes for pharmaceutical purposes, for example using goats to produce antithrombin, is called __________.pharming
Golden rice has been genetically engineered. Golden rice differs from other rice varieties because it contains genes that will produce _____.beta-carotene
Transgenic organisms are only scientifically or commercially useful if _____.the inserted (“foreign”) gene is expressed in the host organism
Why is golden rice pale yellow in color?It is rich in beta-carotene.
Which of these is a symptom of vitamin A deficiency?blindness
Which of these is a vitamin A precursor?beta-carotene
The transfer of antibiotic-resistant genes from genetically engineered bacteria to disease-causing bacteria _____.seems unlikely
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be a health problem for someone with cystic fibrosis?obesity
The allele that causes cystic fibrosis is recessive. An individual who is heterozygous for cystic fibrosisis a carier.
If Sophie conceives a child, and the father neither has cystic fibrosis nor is a carrier, what are the chances that the child would have cystic fibrosis?0%, because the child must receive the bad gene from both parents
If Sophie has a brother or sister from the same parents, what are the chances that sibling would have cystic fibrosis?25%
If someone is a carrier of a recessive genetic disorder, it means he or she has __________ of the allele, and __________ exhibit symptoms of the disorder.one copy; does not
Which of the following do you think contributed the most to the success of Rhys’ gene therapy?Doctors were replacing only one gene, and they only had to insert that gene into bone marrow cells.
Theoretically, which of the following diseases should be the easiest to treat through gene therapy, considering the targeted organs and tissues where the corrected gene must be delivered?diabetes, since the target cells are found only in the pancreas
What does the process of gene therapy involve?It adds a functioning version of the defective gene to the cells of an individual.
DNA profiling is a forensic procedure being utilized to identify individuals. This technique _____.compares the DNA banding patterns of small segments of the genome
In a PCR reaction, the strands of DNA are first separated by ___.heating
When is PCR particularly applicable?When there are small quantities of DNA to analyze
What is the correct sequence of events that occur in a PCR reaction?separation of DNA strands; addition of primers; use of DNA polymerase to produce second strand of DNA
DNA polymerase is a heat-sensitive enzyme. What is one thing that would need to be considered concerning the activity of this enzyme in PCR when the temperature is heated during each cycle to separate the DNA strands?that the DNA polymerase could be denatured
What is the function of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?It can make a large amount of DNA from a tiny amount.
During the Polymerase Chain Reaction, the two strands of DNA are separated by _____.applying heat that breaks the hydrogen bonds connecting the DNA strands
In gel electrophoresis DNA molecules migrate from _____ to _____ ends of the gel.negative … positive
DNA moves through a gel toward the positive electrode when an electric charge is applied. What property of DNA allows this movement or migration to occur?DNA has a negative charge.
Gel electrophoresis separates DNA molecules on the basis of size. Which of the following DNA molecules would move the slowest?F plasmid (100 kb)
The variation that occurs in 13 predetermined sites scattered throughout the human genome can be used to identify individual people. This DNA profile is possible because _____.an individual is likely to have the same sequence in the same places but with a different number of repeats
To identify an individual involved in a crime, criminologists analyze DNA from a suspect’s blood and compare the __________ to samples found at the crime scene.short tandem repeat DNA profile
What does the term restriction fragment length polymorphism mean?fragments of DNA that are different lengths in different individuals
Comparison of whole genome sequences shows that we share _____ of our genome sequence with our closest relative.96%
The RP13 gene of chromosome 17 codes for a protein _____.involved in eye development
The TP53 gene of chromosome 17 codes for a protein _____.involved in the regulation of the cell cycle
Which of these genes codes for a protein that plays a role in growth?GH1
Which of these genes codes for a protein that plays a role in white blood cell function?MPO
The individuals working on the Human Genome Project (HGP) were attempting to _____.map all the human genes and determine the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome
Approximately what percentage of the human genome actually encodes proteins?3%
Celera Genomics implemented a faster way of sequencing the human genome. What was this method?shotgun cloning
Proteomics studies _____.all of the proteins encoded in a genome
Analyses of human and Neanderthal FOXP2 genes have revealed that __________.Neanderthals may have had the ability to speak
In order for gene therapy to be permanent in the patient being treated,the normal gene must be transferred to somatic cells that can continuously multiply.
Genetically modifying ________ cells may directly affect future generations.gamete-forming
What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?DNA profiling
The polymerase chain reaction relies upon unusual, heat-resistant ________ that were isolated from bacteria living in hot springs.DNA polymerases
If you commit a crime, you need to make sure that you do not leave even the smallest speck of blood, hair, or other organic matter from your body. If you do, the DNA in this material can be amplified by _____, subjected to genetic analysis, and used to identify you as the perpetrator of the crime.PCR
Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of theirsize.
During the process of electrophoresis, the ________ functions like a molecular sieve, separating the samples according to their size.agarose gel
What is the current standard tool used for DNA profiling by forensic scientists?STR analysis
Which of the following statements regarding repetitive DNA is false?Repetitive DNA is identical in all humans.
Which of the following pieces of evidence would be considered the best for establishing biological relatedness?a very close match in the DNA profile
What is the smallest number of cells needed to perform a successful DNA profile?20
When genetic variation in one nucleotide is found in at least 1% of the population, it is known as asingle nucleotide polymorphism.
Which of the following statements about genome sequencing is false?Most of the genomes that have been sequenced to date are eukaryotes.
Approximately what percentage of human DNA is noncoding?98.5%
The type of repetitive DNA composed of sequences of large repeated units is often associated withtransposable elements.
Segments of eukaryotic DNA that can move or be copied from one site to another in the genome are calledtransposable elements.
The ________ approach to gene cloning employs a mixture of fragments from the entire genome of an organism and results in the production of thousands of different recombinant plasmids.shotgun
Why is the whole-genome shotgun method currently the tool of choice for analyzing genomes?It is fast and inexpensive.
The number of proteins in humansis much greater than the number of genes.
Which of the following statements regarding proteomics is true?Proteomics is the systematic study of the full set of proteins encoded by a genome.
Approximately what percentage of the human genome is identical to that of a chimpanzee?98.8%
Genome sequence analysis suggests that Neanderthalsat least sometimes had pale skin and red hair.