Bio exam 3

Alternative forms of a gene that influence the same trait and are found at the same location in homologous chromosomes are called?alleles
Which of the following represents the physical characteristics of the individual?phenotype
The _____ indicates the gene combination of an individual?genotype
If an organism shows a recessive phenotype, such as short pea plants, its genotype can be?only tt
In humans, brown eyes (BB) is a simple dominant trait over blue eyes (b). A brown eyed woman whose child is blue-eyed would have the genotype?Bb
In humans, widow’s peak (W) is dominant over straight hariline (w). If a heterozygous male marries a female with a straight hairline, what percent of their children can be expected to have widow’s peak?50%
What will the genotypic ratio be of a mono-hybrid cross of two individuals who are heterozygous for a trait?25%
In which kind of cross would you expect to find a phenotypic ratio of 3:1 among the offspring?monohybrid cross
In humans, assume red hair is recessive to dark hair. What are the chances of a dark-haired couple having a red-haired child if each had a red-haired parent?25%
If the genotype of an organism is YySsTt, then yST would representa gamete of the parent
A blue-eyed, left-handed woman marries a brown-eyed, right-handed man who is heterozygous for both of his traits. If blue eyes and left-handendess are recessive, how many different phenotypes are possible for their children?four
What are the chances that two individuals with wavy hair (an incomplete dominant trait) will have a curly-haired child? Curly hair and straight hair exhibit incomplete dominance.25%
Consider skin color to be regulated by three genes A,B, and C. All recessive alleles would be 0 or white in the color scale. All dominate alleles would be 6 or black on the color scale. What color is a person with AAbbCc genotype?3 or medium brown
Cold weather can change the _____ of a Himalayan rabbit?phenotype
You have two true-breeding rose bushes, one with red flowers and one with white flowers, a cross between these two roses yields a bush with pink flowers. What condition does this demonstrate?incomplete dominance
Hydrangeas are a flowering plant with large showy blooms. When a plant is grown in aluminum rick soil it has blue flowers; if the same plant is transplanted into soil that is lacking aluminum the flowers produced will be pink. This is an example of?environmental effects
To try and discover if the environment has an effect on a particular characteristic scientists often examine?monozygotic human twins that were separated at birth
Homologous chromosomes contain identical?genes
According to the law of independent assortment?all possible combinations of factors can occur in the gametes
A distribution of the graph of a trait is bell-shaped. What pattern of inheritance does this suggest?polygenic with environmental influences
Color blindness is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. A male who is color-blind marries a heterozygous woman. What percent of their total children will be color-blind?50%
When homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, this is termed?nondistjutction
Which refers to the loss of a complete chromosome?monosomy
A person who as an extra copy of a chromosome is said to havetrisomy
A female with two Barr bodies in her cells would have what combination of sex chromosomes?XXX
Which statement is true regarding the Barr body?it is found in the nuclei of females
The most common autosomal abnormality present in people is?an extra chromosome
Karyotyping can be used to diagnose which of the following genetic disorders?down syndrome
If a person inherits two X chromosomes, this individual will be?female
An individual who as an XXY combination of sex chromosomes is said to have _____ syndrome?Klinefelter
A person with an XO genotype is classified as having?turner syndrome
If a chromosomal segment is turned around 180, the chromosomal mutation is termed a?inversion
Which refers to the movement of a piece of one chromosome to another non-homologous chromosome?translocation
Which refers to the loss of a portion of a chromosome?deletion
Which refers to the addition of a repeat segment of a chromosome?duplication
If a woman is a carrier for the color blind recessive allele and her husband is normal, what are their chances that a son will be color blind?50% since the mother is only a carrier
A mother is a carrier for blue eyes (autosomal recessive) and for hemophilia(X-linked recessive). Which of these is a correct statement?The father’s genotype can determine whether a son will have blue eyes but cannot determine whether a son will be a hemophiliac
The hereditary material found in all cells is?DNA
The x-ray diffraction photography of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins was critical evidence ?indicating the DNA has a double helix structure.
Which of the following have nitrogenous bases correctly paired in DNA?adenine-thymine; guanine-cytosine
A nucleotide contains?a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogen base
In the Watson-Crick model of DNA, the “sides” of the ladder are composed of?sugar-phosphate molecules.
The enzyme that is used to join complementary DNA nucleotides together is?DNA polymerase
In semi-conservative DNA replication, each new double helix formed will have?one new and one old strand in each helix
The ____ enzyme is responsible for unwinding the double-helix structure of DNA during replication?helicase
A gene is physcically located on the ____ of the cell.DNA
Which of the following nucletoide bases is found only in RNA, not in DNA?uracil
The function of transfer RNA is to?carry amino acids to ribosomes
Which of the following is NOT part of gene expression?replication
Which of the classes of RNA molecules carries the genetic information as it is needed for the construction of a protein?messenger RNA
Prior to protein synthesis, the DNA?serves as a template for the production of mRNA
In modern biochemical genetics, the flow of inherited information is from?DNA, RNA, protein.
Transcription of a part of a DNA molecule with a nucleotide sequence of AAACAACTT results in a mRNA molecule with the complementary sequence of?UUUGUUGAA
If one strand of DNA has the base sequence AAGCA, the complementary strand has which of the following sequences?TTCGTT
During the process of transcription, the information in?DNA is converted into RNA information
An intervening sequence of DNA that is not expressed is called a?intron
The ____ contains the information for the structure of the protein?exons
Which is the process by which a protein is constructed in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells?translation
For translation to take place, which of the following would NOT be required to be present?DNA
The genetic code consists of ____ bases that stand for one amino acid?3
Messenger RNA is produced in the?nucleus
Which is most directly responsible for the sequence of amino acids in a protein?the sequence of codons in mRNA
Gene mutations are?alterations in the normal sequence of bases within a gene
If the normal nucleotide sequence was TACGGCATG, what type of gene mutation is present if the resulting sequence becomes TAGGCATG?deletion mutation
Specific DNA sequences that have the ability to move within and out of chromosomes are called?transposons
______ regulation occurs within a cell when the newly formed protein is modified?posttranslation
Eukayaotic transcription factors assist the ___ in binding to the ______.RNA polymerase: promoter
_______ bind to enhancers in eukaryotic cells to increase the rate of transcription?Transcription activators
Which of the following is not true about cancer cells?They can exhibit contact inhibition
DNA segments called _____ are at the ends of chromosomes and eventually signal the cell to enter apoptosis?telomeres
The purpose of PCR is to createbillions of copies of a segment of DNA
PCR is often used in forensic analysis since?very small samples are frequently all that are available
In STR, short tandem repeat, profiling, both _____ and _________ are used to identify an individuallength or the repeated sequence: number of fragments
One of the problems that limits the use of gene therapy isdetrimental side effects from the inserted genes
The human genome project discovered many small regions of DNA that vary among individuals called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS). Certain SNP patterns change an individuals susceptibility to disease and after response to medical treatments. This knowledge has led to the idea ?of designer drugs that are made to match one specific individuals DNA profile
The treatment of a disorder by inserting genetic material into an organism is called?gene therapy 7
Which of the following is NOT used in the production of recombinant DNA (rDNA)?RNA
_____ uses an electrical field to separate DNA fragments based upon their lengthGel electrophoresis
Ex vivo gene therapyrequires the removol of cells from the individual undergoing the treatment and then the reintroduction of these cells once they have been genetically modified
What structure is used to seal the DNA into an opening created by the restriction enzyme during recombination DNA technology?DNA ligase
What is the substance required to cleave the vector DNA during recombinant DNA technology?restriction enzymes
Which of the following is a site of ex vivo gene therapy?bone marrow
Which evidence for evolution uses impressions of plants and animals pressed into sedimentary rock?fossil record
Which fossil evidence is considered an intermediate between reptiles and birds?archaeopteryx
Mass extinctions….?have occurred about 4 or 5 times in fossil record, due in some cases to catastrophic changes
Africa, Asia, South America, and Antarctica share some patterns of primitive (fossil) plants and early reptiles, but do not have similar mammal populations. This therefore?suggests that the earlier plants and reptiles evolved while continents were joined but mammals radiated into diverse groups after separation
Homologous structures such as the bones in wings, flippers, and arms are most closely concerned withcomparative anatomy
Anatomical features that are fully developed and functional in one group of organisms but reduced and functionless in a similar group arevestigial
The _____ is the total number of alleles of all gene loci in all the members of a populationgene pool
What is the term used to describe the accumulation of small changes in the gene pool of a species over time?microevolution
A variety of genotypes and phenotypes in a population is useful because itallows the species to survive if the environment changes
The raw material for evolutionary change ismutation
The Amish of Lancaster, PA have a higher frequency of an unusual form of dwarfism than the population at large. This is probably due to?a founder effect
When only a few individuals survive unfavorable times, thereby losing the majority of genotypes in the next generation, it is calleda bottleneck effect
Which of the following is true about natural selection?on average, it favors the survival of young with adaptive characteristics
Movement of alleles between populations such as by the migration of breeding individuals is called?gene flow
Which type of natural selection increases the frequency of an extreme phenotypedirectional
Which type of natural selection occurs when an intermediate phenotype is favored?stabilizing selection
Which of the following agents of evolutionary change resutls in adaptionnatural selection
Four characteristics of Rett’s syndromeSeizures
Restriction enzymes found in bacterial cells are ordinarly usedto degrade viral DNA that enters the cell
Which of the folloiwng enyzmes are needed to introduce foreign DNA into a vector?restriction enyzme and DNA ligase
A genetic profile canbe accomplished utilitzing bioinformatics
The polymerase chain reaction?uses a tempature-insensitive enzyme
During the PCR reaction, the DNA sample is heated in order to?seperate it into single strands
Gene therapyIs sometimes used in medicine today and makes uses of viruses to carry foreign genes into human cells
Because of the human genome project, we now know..?the sequence of the base pairs of our DNA
Which of the following statements is incorrect?Animals can be cloned, but plants and bacteria cannot.
What is ex vivo gene therapywhen cells containing a dysfunctional gene are removed from the patient, treated, and then returned to the patient.
Inheritance of a acquired characteristics is associated withLamarck
Within a population, plants that produce an insect toxin are more likely to survive and reproduce than plants that do not produce toxinnatural selection
The gene pool of a population of bighorn sheep in the southwest United States is altered when several animals cross over a mountain pass and join the populationgene flow
Peas are good for genetic studies because theyare more genetically variable than most plants
Which of the following genotypes indicated a heterozygous individual?Aa
List the gametes produced by AaBbAB,Ab,aB,ab