BIOLOGY ch 6 & Qs

What is the monomer of the DNA polymer?Nucleotide
What is different from one DNA nucleotide to the next?The base
Which enzyme is responsible for adding complementary DNA bases to an exposed DNA strand?DNA Polymerase
If DNA directs the production of RNA, what does RNA make?Proteins
What is a gene?A section of DNA that codes for a portion and for one or more proteins & A discrete sequence of DNA nucleotides
If the base sequence of template strand reads GCCATTAC, what is the base sequence of the mRNA?CGGUAAUG
What does “transfer RNA” actually transfer?Amino acids
Ribosomes are made out of which macromolecule?Nucleic acid & protein
How is translation initiated?Two ribosomal subunits bind to the mRNA transcript.
According to the base pairing rules of DNA, if the sequence of bases on one strand was AGGCTTA, what would be the sequence of bases on the complementary strand?TCCGAAT
Enzyme that performs the process of transcriptionRNA polymerase
The RNA molecule that exits the nucleus is called the _mRNA
mRNA travels to the _Ribosome
Transcription occurs in the _Nucleus
Translation occurs in the _Cytoplasm
_ helps the process of translation, recognizes one nucleotide triplet, and carries one amino acidtRNA
Most genes are in the “off” state and are not expressed. How then are genes turned on?Transcription factors must first bind to the DNA.
The type of mutation that alters the nucleotide sequence of a gene but does not alter the amino acid sequence of the protein produced from that gene is called ________ mutation.Silent
A lump of abnormal cells that grow out of control but remain in the original siteBenign tumor
Abnormally growing mass of cells that are spreading throughout the bodyMalignant tumor
The spread of cancer cells from their site of origin to other sites in the bodyMetastasis
An individual with a malignant tumor is said to have _Cancer
The small circular molecules of DNA commonly found in bacteria are called ________.Plasmids
While it is a standard rule of thumb to say information passes from DNA to RNA to protein, there are exceptions. What is the name of the enzyme that builds DNA out of RNA?Reverse transcriptase
Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments according to their ________.Length
An example of genomicsThe Human Genome Project
A massive scientific undertaking meant to identify and sequence all of the genes found in a human cellThe (actual) Human Genome Project
The branch of biology that studies whole genomesGenomics
Complete sets of data found within organismsGenomes
Conclusion of the Human Genome Project1.5% of human DNA encodes for proteins
DNA is chopped up with restriction enzymes, the fragments are sequenced, & then they are reassembled into one continuous sequenceWhole-Genome Shotgun
Why can a person who is unable to produce insulin, be successfully treated with insulin derived from genetically modified bacteria?The gene that produces insulin in humans was inserted into the bacteria where it continues to produce human insulin.
How does antibiotic resistance evolve in bacterial populations?In any population of bacteria, some individuals are more resistant to particular antibiotics and some individuals are less resistant. In the presence of an antibiotic, susceptible individuals die off. Over time, the frequency of resistant bacteria within the population increases.
Can you inherit physical traits that your parents acquired during their lifetime?No
What is the name for the study of the geographic distribution of species?Biogeography
What defines a population?Interbreeding members of the same species
What is the leading hypothesis for what might have brought about the extinction of the dinosaurs?An asteroid impact
The slow drifting of sections of the earth’s crust, sometimes separating, other times colliding, is known as ________.Plate tectonics
Which would be a postzygotic barrier to reproduction?Hybrid weakness
In many ways a mule is a superior animal to the horse or donkey. They are often stronger and can jump higher than either of their parents. Why then are they considered to be a “weak hybrid”?They are sterile
Why are animals more likely than plants to form new species while still in the presence of the parent population?Plants are more likely than animals to form new species in this situation.
Imagine that you start with a population of red, white, and blue flowers, a trait controlled by genetics. If you always cut blue flowers before they have a chance to reproduce, the number of blue flowers will change from generation to generation; however, the gene pool will still remain constant. (T/F)False
The emergence of sexual reproduction among the protists was important primarily because __________.It increased genetic variation
__ are protistsAlgae
What supportive evidence for evolution has been obtained from comparing the forelimbs of different mammals?Anatomical homology
__________ proposed that geological processes are still ongoing.Lyell
Is the layering of fossils in the Earth used to support evolution?Yes, fossil records are laid out in chronological order so we can observe changes in species over time
We can predict that two very distantly related species, such as bluebirds and alligators, probably __________.share relatively few DNA sequences
Where would a genetic mutation first appear?DNA
Anatomical structures such as the tailbones of humans are not critical to survival but may be very important to other animals, such as our primate relatives. In humans, the tailbone could be considered __________.vestigal
What type of supportive evidence for evolution has been obtained from comparing the embryology of different animals?Developmental homology
The average birth weight of human babies has remained within the range of approximately 6.5 to 9 lbs. over many generations. This is the result of __________.Stabilizing selection
A population has an allele frequency of 0.4 for the recessive allele and 0.6 for the dominant allele of a two-allele trait. According to the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, what frequency would you predict for the recessive phenotype?0.16
What process causes the appearance of new alleles in a population?Mutation
Evidence for evolution is found in the __________.allele frequencies in a population
Of the following evolutionary forces, which consistently pushes populations toward a better “fit” with their environments?Natural selection
Which of the following evolutionary forces prevents a population from becoming reproductively isolated?Gene flow
Darwin’s theory of evolution was inspired largely by his observations in __________.the Gal├ípagos Islands
What is a consequence of natural selection?Evolution
What is genetic drift?A change in allele frequency that is due to chance
The Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution by natural selection did not include __organisms that are driven to become perfect
Coevolution is exemplified by __________.flower patterns and honeybees
Back in the fossil field, you have discovered many fossils that are similar to Neko borgus. You notice, however, that the more recent Neko fossils tend to be larger than those that are more ancient. The most plausible conclusion is that __________.Neko has been subjected to directional selection
Natural selection is best described as __________.differential (unequal) survival and reproduction
__________ proposed that species evolved by the inheritance of characteristics acquired by their parents.Lamarck
What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution?Microevolution: change within a population or species
Macroevolution: change above the species level that can produce new species
The emergence of very diverse species of house pets (birds, domestic dogs) is an example of __________.Macroevolution
The most inclusive category is __________.Kingdom
On official documents, you are asked to give your first and last names. Which name is analogous to a genus, and which to a species name?First name is analogous to species, last name to genus.
The term “allopatric speciation” is best defined as __________.speciation that occurs as a result of geographic separation
According to the biological species concept, a species is composed of __________.Individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
The term “sympatric speciation” is best defined as __________.Speciation that occurs in the absence of geographic separation
Plants are much more likely than animals to form hybrids. Most of these hybrids are sterile, but occasionally these individuals can produce fertile hybrids that are the basis for a new species. The reason is that plants, unlike animals, are capable of surviving __________.polyploidy
Which of the following species is the immediate evolutionary ancestor to Homo sapiens?H. heidelbergensis
Crossing a male horse and a female donkey produces a mule. Mules are an example of __________.Hybrid infertility
An essential distinguishing feature of hominin fossils is evidence of __________.bipedalism
In the modern system for classifying life used by many biologists, the three domains are __________.Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
The biological species concept fails to recognize species of __________.bacteria
The sequences of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from bacterial isolates A, B, and C were determined. The isolates A and B differ at 20 nucleotides; A and C differ at 45 nucleotides; and B and C differ at 5 nucleotides.

Which of these isolates are most likely to be the same bacterial species?

B & C
Biologists refer to the variety within and among living species as __________.Biodiversity
What domains identify organisms that have prokaryotic cells?Archaea and Bacteria
You now begin the task of grouping your many fossils. Can you determine which examples are from the same species by using the biological species concept?No, because you cannot determine the potential for interbreeding between samples.
Two individuals from different populations attempt to mate but are unable to successfully coordinate the mating dance. This is an example of a __________ isolating mechanism.behavioral
Prior to Darwin, ideas about how organisms came into being were mostly based on __________.religious beliefs
The biological species concept applies only to breeding populations nature
The evolution of mammals after the extinction of dinosaurs around 65 million years ago is an example of adaptive radiation. In adaptive radiation, or a few species diversify into a large and varied group of descendant species
The term used to describe humans and human ancestors is __________.hominins
Paleontologists are biologists that study fossils. Paleoanthropologists study __________.Fossil record of humans
Process which evolution occursNatural selection
Evolution is the change in _ frequency over timeallele
Smallest unit that can evolvePopulation
Best description of natural selectionReproductive success of members of a population best adapted to the environment
Theory of evolution by natural selection makes two statements:species change over time & are related by common ancestry
What is not part of the process of natural selection?Many adaptive traits may be acquired during an individuals lifetime, helping that individual evolve
related families grouped into the next highest taxon?order
Prokaryotes in which domain?Bacteria and archaea
DNA is made up of _5 carbon sugar, phosphate, base, and a sugar phosphate backbone
DNA replication is semi-conservative because _each DNA molecule contains half of the original, one old and one new strand
What is true of tRNA?Translates triplets of RNA nucleotides into amino acids and contain an anticodon
What prevents the flow of genetic information?introns, exons, transcription factors, and x chromosome inactivation
Cancer cells have abnormal characteristics because _Control of gene expression has been lost
Cell tests positive for cancer because of the _Chromosomal translocation