APUSH Chapter 18

Jay Gouldrailroad entrepreneur of the union pacific railroad company; obtained generous land and subsidies from federal, state, and local governments & sold bonds and stocks to the public to finance the expensive construction of the railroad; thought by many to have manipulated stock markets for his own benefit.
robber barons/captains of industrygreat industrialists ranged from corrupt pirates to innovative and daring company managers
ICCa 5-member interstate commerce was established to oversee the practices of interstate railroads–>railroads challenged the commision’s rulings in the federal courts–> justices found in favor of the railroads in 15/16 cases, nullifying the ICCs regulatory influence–> Hepburn act (1906)
Hepburn Act (1906)strengthened the ICC by finally empowering it to set rates(in favor of the ICC)
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)banned monopolistic activity like pooling, rebates, and discriminatory short-distance rates (ICC was created after this was passed by congress)
J.Pierpont Morganan intimidating investment banker who took over the weakened systems, reorganized their administration, refined the debts, and built intersystem alliances (took advantage of the weakened competition in the 1893 national depression). he treated workers well, would give them $$ upon a death. owned about 1/2 of the steel and railroad corp. Merged GE. Morganization- took companies that weren’t doing well and fixed them; bit made them artificially less profitable to get more $$ from the share holders.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)Congress placed a ten-year moratorium on chinese workers immigration; the ban was extended in 1902 and not repealed until 1943.
Wabash strikeJay Gould was firing all members on the Knights of Labor working on his Wabash railroad–> Powderly prompted a walk off the job and refused to handle wabash cars –> Gould met with Powderly to arrange a compromise–> thousands rejoined.
National Labor Union(NLU) formed in 1866 by William H. Sylvis
members=skilled workers
Goals of the NLUa shorter work day of 8 hours; end of convict labor; establish a federal department of labor; currency and bank reform; immigration restriction (esp. Chinese workers, undercut wages levels for native-born workers)
Tactics of NLUincluded women suffrage; urged black workers to organize; racially separate unions.
Knights of Laborfounded in 1869 by Uriah H. Stephens
opened to all laborers
Tactics of the KoLdemanded equal pay for women; an end to child labor and convict labor; cooperative employer-employee ownership of businesses, and a progressive tax on all earnings so higher-income earners would pay more.
Tactics of the KoLwanted a non-violent protest
Terence V. Powderlyreplaced Stephens as the KoL head; opposed strikes and organized producer and consumer cooperatives; urged temeperance upon membership and advocated the admission of blacks into local KoL assemblies; also welcomed women; supported restriction on the “servile and dependent” chinese worker
American Federation of Labor (AFL)formed when craft unions left the Kol; they did little to recruit women.
Goals of AFLpractical goals of raising wages and reducing hours, 8 hour workday, employers liability for workers’ injuries and mine safety laws
Tactics of AFLpractical tactics of short-term improvements in wages and hours.
Samuel Gompersimmigrant cigar maker who became head of the AFL in 1886; believed in “trade unionism” and higher wages started AFL sought to organized skilled workers.
Railroad Strikes of 1877the strike exploded along the railroad lines (NY-SF) after workers were enraged by wage reductions on the Baltimore and OH railroad–> Rutherford Hayes called in troops who quelled the strike 2 weeks later–> 100 dead, 2/3 of nation’s railroad stood idle–> stunned middle-class america.
Anti-labor tacticsemployers capitalized on public hysteria to crack down on labor
Yellow Dog contractemployers required to sign these contracts in which they promised not to strike or join a union
Pinkerton Detective Agencya private police force, hired by employers to defend their territories
Haymarket incident (1886)workers wanted an 8-hour workday at their mill –> 340,000 stopped working–>Chicago policemen shot 4 protesters–> bomb set off in Haymarket square–> labor unions shut down–> turned the public against labor unions, thinking that protesters were conspiracy-anarchists who rose up using violence (strikers arrested were part of a German anarchist group).
Homestead Strike (1892)workers at Carnegie Steel Company went on strike after wages were cut and workers were locked out–> owners brought in agents from the Pinkerton Agency to break the strike–> workers fired on agents–> PA sent national guard to restore order–>unions crushed mills resumed full operation a month later.
Pullman StrikeGeorge Pullman cut the pay of his workers without lowering rents when depression of 1893 hit(wages and housing were provided by the company)–workers joined the ARU led by Eugene V. Debs–> managers brought in Richard Olney–> In re Debs case–> strike crushed on july 18th, 1894.
Eugene V. Debs & ARUrallied thousands of union members to refuse to switch Pullman cars–>arrested. ARU- American Railroad Union
Richard OlneyU.S. attorney general brought in to place a federal injunction on the strikers for restraining commerce.
In re Debs (1895)Supreme court upheld Deb’s prison sentence and legalized the use of injunctions against labor unions–> the judicial system gave business a potent new weapon with which to restrain labor organizations.
Andrew Carnegierags to riches. Scottish Immigrant who moved to America. Rose quickly in the ranks of the PA railroads western division. Carnegie steel. Gave a lot of $$ to charity and schools etc. JP Morgan bought Carnegie Steel and created United States Steel Corp. 1901. Used vertical integration- controlling all aspects of manufacturing.
Edwin Drake & Titusville (1859)drilled the first petroleum–> leading fuel for the household and public lighting.
J.D. Rockefeller & Standard Oila passion for efficiency and cost cutting-funded medical research. Low wages, poor conditions,
Horizontalcontrolling one tier of production
Verticalcontrolled all aspects of production
Sherman Anti-Trust Actoutlawed trusts and any other monopolies that fixed prices in restraint of trade and slapped violators with fine up to 5k and a year in jail; the act failed to define clearly either trust or “restraint” of trade
George Eastmandeveloped a paper-based photographic film. New Marketing methods to keep up demand for their products w/ overproduction
Lost Causethe conservative and unchanging south