APUSH | Chapter 12 An Age Of Reform, 1820-1840

A young minister converted by the evangelical preacher Charles G. Finney, _____ helped to create a mass constituency for abolitionism by training speakers and publishing pamphlets.Theodore Weld
Abby Kelleydemonstrated the interconnectedness of nineteenth-century reform movements
Abolitionists challenged stereotypes about African-Americans by:countering the pseudoscientific claim that they formed a separate species
According to Alexis de Tocqueville, what were the most important institutions for organizing Americans?voluntary associations
According to the mid-nineteenth-century physicians and racial theorists Josiah Nott and George Gladden:there was a hierarchy of races, with black forming a separate species between whites and chimpanzees
All of the following are true of Margaret Fuller EXCPET:She was the first feminist leader educated at a major college
Although it only lasted a few years, the New Harmony communityinfluences education reformers and women’s right’s advocates
Angelina and Sarah Grimké:critiqued the prevailing noting of separate spheres for men and women
At the end of their trek in the mid-1940s Mormons led by Brigham Young foundedSalt Lake City, Utah
Before the Civil War, who came to believe that the U.S. Constitution did not provide national protection to the institution of slaveryFrederick Douglass
Brook Farmwas founded by New England transcendentalists
Burned-over districts werein New York and Ohio where intense revivals occurred
By 1840, the temperance movement in the United States had:encouraged a substantial decrease in the consumption of alcohol
Common SchoolsExisted in every northern state by the time of the Civil Way
Dorothea Dix devoted much time to the crusade for the:construction of humane mental hospitals for the insane
Frederick Douglass wrote, “When the true history of the antislavery cause shall be written, ____ will occupy a large space in its pages.”women
Freedom’s Journalwas the first black-run newspaper in the United States
Horace Mann believed that public schools would do all of the following EXCEPT:help eliminate racial discrimination
How did reformers reconcile their desire to create moral order with their quest to enhance personal freedom?They argued that too many people were “slaves” to various sins and that freeing them from this enslavement would enable them to compete economically
How did the abolitionist movement that arose in the 1830s differ from earlier antislavery efforts?The later movement drew much more on the religious conviction that slavery was an unparalleled sin and needed to be destroyed immediately
How did the abolitionist link themselves to the nation’s Revolutionary heritage?They seized on the preamble to the Declaration of Independence as an attack against slavery.
Like Indian removal, the colonization of former slaves rested on the premises that Americawas fundamentally a white society
Members of which of the following groups were generally opposed to the temperate movementCatholics
The American Tract Society was focused onreligion
The antislavery poet John Greenleaf Whittier compared reformer Abby Kelley to:Helen of Troy, who sowed the seeds of male destruction
The colonization of freed U.S. slaves to Africa:prompted the adamant opposition of most free African-Americans
The death of Elijah Lovejoy in 1837:convinced many northerners that slavery was incompatible with white Americans’ liberties
The first to apply the abolitionist doctrine of universal freedom and equality to the status of womenwere the Grimké sisters
The frontispiece of the 1848 edition of David Walker’s book depicts a black figure receiving “liberty” and “justice” from:heaven
The gag ruleprevented Congress from hearing antislavery petitions
The North-Carolina-born free black whose Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World won widespread attention was:David Walker
The Oneida community:controlled which of its members would be allowed to reproduce
The organized abolitionist movement split into two wings in 1840, largely over:dispute concerning the proper role of women in antislavery work
The proliferation of new institutions such as poorhouses and asylums for the insane during the antebellum era demonstrated the:tension’s between liberation and control in the era’s reform movements.
The reform communities established in the years before the Civil War:set out to reorganize society on a cooperative basis
The role of African-Americans in the abolitionist movementincluded helping to finance William Lloyd Garrison’s newspaper
The Seneca Falls Convention’s Declaration of Sentimentscondemned the entire structure of inequality between men and women
The _____ was established in hopes of making abolitionism a political movementLiberty Party
Utopian communities were unlikely to attract much support because most Americanssaw property ownership as key to economic independence, but nearly all the utopian communities insisted members give up their property
What book was to some extent modeled on the autobiography of fugitive salve Josiah Henson?Uncle Tom’s Cabin
What did reformers commonly believe about prisons and asylums?that they could rehabilitate individuals and then release them back into society
What did the Fourth of July represent to Frederick Douglass?the hypocrisy of a nation that proclaimed liberty but sanctioned slavery
What was a “bloomer” in the 1850s?a feminist style of dress
Which of the following correctly pairs the reform community with the state in which it was located?New Harmony: Indiana
Which of the following was NOT a reform movement in which women played a prominent role during the early to mid-nineteenth century?the anti-Mexican-War movement
Which statement about Shakers is FALSE?The practiced “complex marriage” and publicly recorded sexual relations
Which statement about the Mormons, a group founded by Joseph Smith, is FALSE?The Mormons were founded in the 1840s as an offshoot of Methodism
Who founded the Shakers?Ann Lee
William Lloyd Garrison argued in Thoughts on African Colonization that:black were not “strangers” in America to be shipped abroad, but should be recognized as a permanent part of American society.
William Lloyd Garrison published an abolitionist newspaper called:The Liberator
William Lloyd GarrisonSuggested that the North dissolve the Union to free itself of any connection to slavery.
Utopian communitiesReform communities where small groups of men and women attempted to establish a more perfect order within the larger society.
PolygamyA Mormon practice which allows one man to have more than one wife.
Secular communitarianA person who plans or lives in a cooperative community
”perfectionism”The idea that social ills once considered incurable could in fact by eliminated.
Temperance movementA reform movement advocating the moderation in consumption of liquor.
Self-disciplineSome reformers believed that self-fulfillment came through the practice of self-control.
Common schoolTax-supported state schools open to all children.
Public educationUniversal public education was viewed as an avenue to restore equality and to equip the less fortunate for advance in the social scale.
American Colonization SocietyOrganized in 1816 to encourage colonization of free blacks to Africa; West African nation of Liberia founded in 1822 to serve as a homeland for them.
American Anti-Slavery SocietyFounded in 1833 to organize efforts devoted to abolition.
”moral suasion”A method of reformers attempting to convert people to their cause by highlighting the moral implications of the opposing viewpoint.
Uncle Tom’s CabinHarriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 antislavery novel popularized the abolitionist position.
”Am I Not a Man and a Brother?”A motto adopted by abolitionists to highlight the reality that blacks in bondage were no different than the whites in power over them.
”gentlemen of property and standing”Merchants with close commercial ties to the South.
Gag ruleRule adopted by House of Representatives in 1836 prohibiting consideration of abolitionist petitions; opposition, led by former president John Quincy Adams, succeeded in having it repealed in 1844.
Dorothea DixA Massachusetts schoolteacher who was the leading advocate of more humane treatment of the insane.
Woman suffrageA woman’s right to vote, an issue raised for the first time at the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848.
Women in the Nineteenth CenturyPublished in 1845, Margaret Fuller’s work that sought to apply to women the transcendalist idea that freedom meant a quest for personal development.
Liberty PartyAbolitionist political party that nominated James G. Birney for president in 1840 and 1844; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848.
The American Colonization Society called for:a gradual end to slavery, and the resettlement of blacks outside the United States.
Dorthea Dix, a Massachusetts school teacher, was the leading proponent of:more humane treatment of the insane.
The 1836 “gag rule”:prohibited consideration of petitions calling for emancipation in the House of Representatives.
Which of the following is not true of the utopian communities of the 1820s, 1830s, and 1840s?They differed little in their systems of labor, gender relations, and internal governance.
At the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention in New York, Elizabeth Cady Stanton modeled the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments on:the Declaration of Independence.
Which of the following was not a feature of the emergent American feminism of the 1840s?Feminist leaders like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott confined their focus to the quest for suffrage; for them, demands for equality in other areas seemed trivial by comparison.
The founder and earliest leader of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1820 was:Joseph Smith
Which of the following was not an area of public activism open to women during the 1830s and 1840s?political party conventions
“Perfectionism” was (is) the view that:social ills once considered unable to be cured could be eradicated.
American reform efforts during the 1820s and 1830s:raised and addressed a variety of issues, such as alcoholism, crime, prison life, illiteracy, labor conditions, women’s rights, and slavery.
Which was not a characteristic of Robert Owen’s early-nineteenth-century utopian communities?Individualism and anarchy were watchwords at New Harmony.
Beginning in 1816, the American Colonization Society:wished both to abolish slavery and send American blacks to Africa.
Which of the following was not a distinguishing feature of the new abolitionism of the 1830s?A conviction that if abolition was not soon achieved by “moral suasion,” then violent measures would become necessary
The richly diverse voluntary associations that developed in early-nineteenth century United States included all of the following EXCEPT:societies to shorten the hours of labor for farmers to eight in a day.
The number of voluntary reform communities established in the decades before the Civil War that historians often call “utopian” communities—such as the Oneidan, Owenite, or Fourierist communities—numbered about100.
The nineteenth-century view that there should be an immediate end to slavery and incorporation of the freed persons into the republic as equal citizens is called:abolitionism.
Between 1833 and 1840, about how many northerners joined abolitionist groups?100,000
At Oneida, founded in 1848 in New York State, John Humphrey Noyes did away with private property and developed the idea of “complex marriage.” Complex marriage at Oneida meant:any man and any woman could have sexual relations at any time so long as the relationship was mutual and was recorded in a public record book.
Which was not a movement Abby Kelley was associated with?tariff reform
Which was not among the institutional asylums built during the 1830s and 1840s?settlement houses in cities.
The Liberator, the abolitionist journal, was published in Boston in 1831 by:William Lloyd Garrison
Many northern women were inspired and transformed by the abolitionist message, but few played an active role in spreading it.F
As a driving force in the creation of public schools for all, Horace Mann promoted the idea that schools were training free individuals, which he believed meant people who might follow any desire they had, from hedonism to zoology.F
Overall, the reform movement focused on improving the moral character of Americans; it made little effort to improve their material conditions.F
More than 1 million northerners became abolitionists during the 1830s.F
Abolitionists did not believe so much in “moral suasion” as in the violent overthrow of the slave power and insurrection by slaves themselves.F
Though women could not vote in the early-nineteenth-century United States, they did circulate petitions, march in parades, and deliver public lectures on a variety of topics.T
Dorothea Dix was a leading advocate of abolitionism.F
A chief endeavor of black abolitionists was the call for freed blacks to travel to Africa to live in peace and freedom.F
“Perfectionism” was (is) the view that social ills once considered unable to be cured could be eradicated.T
Harriet Beecher Stowe was most famous for running the Underground Railroad.F
American reform efforts during the 1820s and 1830s raised and addressed a variety of issues, such as alcoholism, crime, prison life, illiteracy, labor conditions, women’s rights, and slavery.T
As a driving force in the creation of public schools for all, Horace Mann promoted the idea that universal public education would encourage the good of society by bringing children of all economic classes together in a common learning experience.T
Abby Kelley was one of the foremost female orators in the country during her time.
The Liberty Bell took its name not from eighteenth-century American Revolutionaries, but from nineteenth-century abolitionists.T
William Lloyd Garrison was most remembered for his book Uncle Tom’s Cabin.F
Most African-Americans strongly supported settlement of themselves and other blacks in Africa (as a means to escape southern slavery).F
Shakers practiced sexual polygamy as part of their religious beliefs.F
First and foremost, Abbey Kelley was a tariff reform activist.F
Advocates of moral reform encountered widespread indifference or opposition on the part of those they were trying to reform.T
Disagreement over the role of women in antislavery campaigns contributed to a major split in the abolitionist movement.T
By 1860, tax-supported school systems for children had been established in every state.F
The suppression of abolitionism provoked broad outrage among northerners, including many who had little compassion for the plight of slaves.T
The Liberator, the abolitionist journal, was published in Boston in 1831 by Lucretia Mott.F
Committed to the separation of the sexes, Shaker communities admitted only men.F