BIO CH 11

The process by which genotype becomes expressed as phenotypeis gene expression.
Homeoboxes are evidence ofthe common ancestry of eukaryotic organisms.
Cloning provides evidence that each of the different types of cells (e.g., liver cells, intestinal cells) of an individual,while having different functions, retains a complete genome.
DNA microassay is a technique thatcould tell you how gene activity differs between individuals with and without cystic fibrosis.
Regulatory genes code forrepressors.
Developmental similarities among very different animals can be attributedto shared homeoboxes.
Repressors bind tooperators.
Male tortoiseshell cats are likely to be exceedingly rare andvery likely to be sterile since normal male cats are XY.
Transcription factors attach toDNA
Data suggest that the normal version of BRCA1 functions as atumor-suppressor gene.
Examining a human cell that functions normally, you determine that it has 45 functional chromosomes and one chromosome that is almost completely inactive. You immediately decide that it is very likely that this cellcame from a normal human female.
The operator acts as anan on off switch
In an operon, the ______ acts as an on/off switch.operator
Which of the following turns off transcription by binding to the operator?repressor
Repressors act by blocking the binding of _____ to the operator.RNA polymerase
How can a single RNA transcript be translated into different polypeptides?There is more than one way to splice an RNA transcript.
What would you assume if you found RNA transcripts of lactose-utilizing genes within E. coli?the presence of lactose
Binding of transcription factors to enhancers is not atype of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
Which of these is most likely to cause the development of a six-legged frog?mutation of homeotic genes
The lac operon is usually in the ______ position and is activated by ______.off… lactose
Possible uses of reproductive cloning include ______.The production of organs in pigs for transplant into humans

Restocking populations of endangered animals

The production of genetically identical animals for experimentation

Many proto-oncogenes regulate ______.cell division
What is a difference between embryonic and adult stem cells?Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated; adult stem cells are partially differentiated.
Jim has become particularly interested in the genetic basis of cancer and has spent considerable time reading published papers about oncogenes. He learned that as early as 1972 researchers suggested that mutations in proto-oncogenes caused by carcinogens can convert them to oncogenes. He asked you to answer a couple of questions about this because he did not have the biology background to totally understand.

Jim learned that some cancer cells produce more growth-stimulating proteins than others. What would you give him as a plausible explanation?

Proto-oncogenes may have mutated to become oncogenes in these cells.
Jim has become particularly interested in the genetic basis of cancer and has spent considerable time reading published papers about oncogenes. He learned that as early as 1972 researchers suggested that mutations in proto-oncogenes caused by carcinogens can convert them to oncogenes. He asked you to answer a couple of questions about this because he did not have the biology background to totally understand.

Jim learned that viruses can sometimes cause cancer and wants to know why. You tell him that ______.

a human cell can acquire an oncogene from a virus.
Introns are ______.noncoding DNA sequences
What name is given to a gene that causes cancer?oncogene
A high fiber diet is alifestyle choice that will not increase cancer risk.
Cells communicate with one another viasignal-transduction pathways.
Operon includesoperator, lactose-utilization gene 1&2, and promoter.
In eukaryotic cells, repressors proteins inhibit transcription bybinding to silencers.
Homeotic genes are genes involved indetermining patterns of anatomical development.
When you started out, you were a single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cells function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cell. what is the name of this processcellular differatitaion
The possible uses of reproductive cloning isthe production of organs in pigs for transplant into humans, the production of genetically identical animals for experimentation, the production of potentially valuable drugs, the improvement of the quality of farm animals.
In order to make a clone for a mammalian cell, the cell mustdifferentiate.
A gene Operon consists oftranscribed genes and a promoter only.
In prokaryotes,the production of a single RNA transcript for a group of related genes is under the control of an Operon.
There is more than one way to splice an RNA transcript into different polypeptides.
Attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoterplays a role in the regulation of transcription in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proto-oncogenesregulate cell division.
In prokaryotes, Operon is the name given to aunit that controls the turning on and off of a specific set of genes.
The presence of lactose is indicated bythe presence of RNA transcripts of lactose utilizing genes within E-coli?
Inheritance of certain genes increases the risk of getting certain cancers;thus, it can be said that predisposition to these cancers is inherited as a recessive trait.
A mutation in a proto-oncogene will not result in cancer unless (or until)there are additional mutations in genes such as tumor supressors.
More people die of what cancer than any other type?lung
Translation isa mechanism of controlling gene expression occurs outside of the nucleus?
DNA packing and unpacking is the first level ofcontrol of eukaryotic gene transcription.
The cells exhibit different patterns of gene expression isthe basis of the different functions of different body tissues?
Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated;adult stem cells are partially differentiated. This is the difference between embryonic and adult stem cells.
Eukaryotic DNA sequences called enhancershave a function similar to the operators of prokaryotic operons.
To initiate a signal-transduction pathway,a signal binds to a receptor protein, usually located in the plasma membrane.
One of the most potent environmental carcinogens isuv radiation.
Tobacco is responsible formore cancers than any other carcinogen.
Cigarette smoke, fat, uvlight and testosterone are allcarcinogens.
Introns areunexpressed DNA sequences.
Cancer causing genes areoncogenes.
A mutation of Homeotic genes is most likelyto cause the development of a six legged frog.
RNA polymerase bindsto a promoter.
The use of therapeutic cloning holdspromise for the treatment of diseases such as Parkinson’s disease.