AP Human Geography – Development

Gross Domestic ProductThe sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a nation. Includes items produced inside and outside its territory
Gross National IncomeConsists of GDP plus the net income earned from investments abroad (minus any payments made to nonresidents who contribute to the domestic economy).
Gross National ProductGoods and services produced within a country in a given year.
Per Capitaper person
Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growthmodel of economic growth that has 5 different stages. traditonal, preconditions of take off, take off, drive to maturity, high mass consumption.

This model does not take into account other countries and other forces within a country that can influence developmet

World Systems TheoryWallersteins theory of the core, semi periphery, periphery, and external areas. The core benefited the most from the development of a capitalist world economy. Semi perihpery was the buffer between the core and periphery. Periphery are states that lack strong central gov’ts or are controlled by other states. External areas are states that mainteained their own economic system and for the mosr part, remianed outside of the capitalist world economy
Human Development IndexIndicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Gender Inequality Indexa measure that captures the loss in achievements due to gender disparities in the dimensions of reproductive health, empowerment and labour force participation. values range from 0(perfect equality)-1(total inequality)
Gini CoefficientA measure of income inequality within a population, ranging from zero for complete equality, to one if one person has all the income.
Primary economic activityeconomic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment– such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Secondary economic activityEconomic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
tertiary economic activityAny economic activity pertaining to the provision of services – transportation, banking, retailing, education, etc.
Dependency TheoryA model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
Restrictions on economic developmentSocial, political, economic factors (be able to explain them in details)
Environmental consequences of developmentDeforestation, Overfishing, Pollution, Overuse of fuels for trade, Climate change
Export Processing ZoneZones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment.
MaquiladoraThe term given to zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. The low-wage workers in the primarily foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then export finished goods.
CoreCountries that have high levels of economic productivity, high income per capita, and generally high levels of development. The world economic core includes North America, Western Europe, Japan, and Australia
PeripheryCountries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. The world economic periphery includes Africa (except for South Africa), parts of South America, and Asia.
Semi-peripheryplaces where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery
DesertificationDegradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
TourismA service industry based on foreigners visiting a country. Tourism can play a major role in a country’s economy but tourism can lead to some conflict if a country relies too heavily on tourism.
Moving capitalCountries sometimes move capital cities in order to unite the country with a more central location, as a response to independence from a colonial power, or sometimes in order to develop an area of the country
Island of DevelopmentPlace built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure.
Nongovernmental OrganizationA nonprofit association or group operating outside of government that advocates and pursues policy objectives. Often these groups work to help develop aspects of a country in the periphery.
Fordist ProductionForm of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
Friction of DistanceThe increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
Least Cost TheoryModel developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.
CommodificationThe process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy.
Product Life CycleFour stages that product goes through over its life: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline.
Global Division of LaborPhenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world, made possible by the compression of time and space through innovation in communication and transportation systems.
Just-in-time deliveryMethod of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production, planning that what they need for longer-term production will arrive when needed.
offshoreWith reference to production, to outsource to a third party located outside of the country.
outsourceContract with an outside firm to produce goods or services rather than to produce them internally
Deindustrializationprocess by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
Newly industrialized countryRefers to countries that are building up their industries and infrastructure. These countries are generally shifting from an agricultural to an industrial economy.
Asian TigersCollective name for South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore-nations that became economic powers in the 1970s and 1980s.
Break-of-bulk pointA location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. In a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or perhaps smaller riverboats for inland distribution.
Rust BeltThe northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
Sun BeltU.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.
Silicon ValleyA nickname for the Southern part of San Francisco Bay Area in the northern California, originally referring to the concentration of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers, but eventually referring to the concentration of all types of high-tech businesses
bid rentgeographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
Purchasing Power ParityA monetary measurement which takes account of what money actually buys in each country based on the power of their currency and cost of living.
TechnopolesTechnopoles are where there is a high based technology environment that is so big agglomeration happens.
Sustainable DevelopmentDevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Growth Poleseconomic development/growth that isn’t uniform over an entire region deliberately organized around one or more high-growth industries.
Footloose IndustryFootloose industry is a general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as resources or transport. These industries often have spatially fixed costs, which means that the costs of the products do not change despite where the product is assembled. (Computer Chips)
Neo-fordismThe evolution of mass production into a more responsive system geared to the nuances of mass consumption by using flexible production systems that allow production processes to shift quickly between various products
Commodity Chainseries of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market
Weight gaining industryan industry that manufactures a large-sized product from small-sized raw materials, so is located closer to the market; such as cars
Weight losing industryAn industry in which the finished product is less bulky/heavy than the raw materials, therefore this industry is located close to the raw materials; such as the paper industry
Ancillary activitiesEconomic activities that surround and support large scale industries such as shipping and food service.
Economic backwatersRegions that fail to gain from national economic development.
Renewable resourceA natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed
Non-renewable resourcea resource that cannot be reused or replaced easily (ex. gems, iron, copper, fossil fuels)
AnthropocentricHuman-centered; in sustainable development, anthropocentric refers to ideas that focus solely on the needs of people without considering the creatures with whom we share the planet or the ecosystems upon which we depend
EcotourismA form of tourism, based on the enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders, that aims to provide an experience of nature or culture in an environmentally sustainable way.
Backwash EffectThe negative effects on one region that result from economic growth within another region.
Research TriangleA research complex in central North Carolina between Durham, Raleigh, & Chapel Hill that was created in the 1950’s by Duke & NC State universities & the university of North Carolina

Ap Human Geography Vocabulary: Chapter 11

Canadian Industrial HeartlandCanada has a sizable manufacturing sector, centred in Central Canada, with the automobile industry especially important.
Cottage Industrymanufacturing based in homes rather than in factories, commonly found prior to the Industrial Revolution.
Industrial Regions (Place, Fuel Source, Characteristics)Place: based on environmental considerations and the cost effectiveness of the location for the Industry
Fuel Source: a material used to produce heat or power by burning. Important when considering a industry’s location.
Characteristics: refers to a region with extremely dense industry. It is usually heavily urbanized.
Industrial Revolutiona series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Major Manufacturing RegionsEastern United States, Mexico, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and East Asia. These regions are the leaders in industry and therefore significant to geography.
Agglomerationa snowballing geographical process by which secondary through quinary industrial activities become clustered in cities and compact industrial regions in order to share infrastructure and markets.
Agglomeration Economiesthe savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as other factories or retail stores.
Aluminum Industry (Factors of Production, Location)Massive charges of electricity are required to extract aluminum from its processed raw material, aluminum oxide. Electrical power amounts for between 30% and 40% of the cost of producing the aluminum and is the major variable cost influencing plant location in the industry. The Kitimat plant on the west coast of Canada or the Bratsk plant near Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia are examples of industry placed far from raw material sources or market but close to vast supplies of cheap power— in these instances, hydroelectricity.
Apparelan article of clothing.
Bid-Rent Theorygeographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
Break of Bulk Pointa location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
Carrier Efficiencyair shipment is the quickest form but most expensive way; shipping by ship is the cheapest way and can carry the most over a long distance.
Comparative Advantagethe principle that an area produces the items for which it has the greatest ratio of advantage or the least ratio of disadvantage in comparison to other areas, assuming free trade exists; the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers.
Cumulative Causationcontributing factor to uneven development; occurs when money flows to areas of greatest profit, places where development has already been focused, rather than to places of greatest need; a process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions.
Deglomerationthe movement of activity, usually industry, away from areas of concentration.
Economies of Scalereduction in cost per unit resulting from increased production, realized through operational efficiencies. Economies of scale can be accomplished because as production increases, the cost of producing each additional unit falls.
Ecotourisma form of tourism pursued by many ecologically concerned perople, who visit regions having pristine ecosystems and, in the process, to inflict no environmental damage.
Entrepota port, city, or other center to which goods are brought for import and export, and for collection and distribution.
Export Processing Zonea Customs area where one is allowed to import plant, machinery, equipment and material for the manufacture of export goods under security, without payment of duty.
Ferrousmetals, including iron, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel.
Fixed Costsan activity cost (as of investment in land, plant, and equipment) that must be met without regard to level of output; an input cost that is spatially constant.
Footloose Industrya general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without affect from factors such as resources or transport.
Growth Poleseconomic development, or growth, is not uniform over an entire region, but instead takes place around a specific pole.
Industrial Location Theorythe theory that profit of a business is maximized by choosing a location where production costs are lowest as well as land is cheapest and the distance from the market is the smallest. This is important to geography because it is used to describe why many businesses choose their locations in a given area and is key for describing complicated dynamics of industry.
Industry (Receding, Growing)Receding: industry is diminishing in size and importance
Growing: industry is increasing in size and importance.
Infrastructurethe basic structure of services, installations, and facilities needed to support industrial, agricultural, and other economic development; included are transport and communications, along with water, power, and other public utilities.
Labor Intensivean industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
Least-Cost Locationa site chosen for industrial development where total costs are theoretically at their lowest, as opposed to location at the point of maximum revenue.
Nonferrousmetals utilized to make products other than iron or steel.
Market Orientationthe tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution costs.
Multiplier Effectan effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
Resource Crisisfuture shortages of non-renewable energy sources with increased demand, solvable by use of renewable energy.
Resource Orientationtendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources (Ex. coal industry).
Site Factorslocation factors related to the costs of factors of production inside a plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
Situation Factorslocation factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Special Economic Zones (China)In 1979, the Chinese government set up these zones on the coast near Macao, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Improved transportation, lower taxes, and other incentives attracted investments from foreign businesses. They helped stimulate innovation and helped China grow economically.
Specialized Economic Zonesspecific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment.
Substitution Principlemaintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. Therefore in industry, there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) for another (e.g., capital for automated equipment) in order to achieve optimum plant location.
Textilea fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing.
Threshold/RangeThreshold: the minimum number of people needed to support a service.
Range: the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Time-Space Compressionan influence on the rate of expansion diffusion of an idea, observing that the spread or acceptance of an idea is usually delayed as distance from the source of the innovation increases.
Trade (Complementarity)the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services.
Transnational Corporationa company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
Ubiquitousthe state of being everywhere at any given time.
Variable Costscosts that change directly with the amount of production.
Weber, Alfredwas a German economist, sociologist and theoretician of culture whose work was influential in the development of modern economic geography. Created a theory of industrial location.
Weight Gaining/Bulk-Gaining Industryan industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
Weight Losing/Bulk-Losing Industryan industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs
World Citiesa city whose socioeconomics impact the entire world. For example, has Corporate headquarters for multinational corporations and financial institution, Active influence on international events.• A large population within the city• Hosting headquarters for international entities (NATO, World Bank), First Name Familiarity• Renowned Cultural Institutions• Well developed transportation.
Cottage industryHome-based manufacturing
Industrial regionsMany in Europe, North America, and Asia; account for a lot of the world’s industrial output
Major manufacturing regionsEastern United States, Mexico, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and East Asia
AgglomerationGrouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources
Agglomeration economieseconomies of scale resulting from the concentration of people and production in urban areas
Aluminum industrythis industry has to comply with clean air rules while still trying to make the most money possible in their production
ApparelClothing
Bid rent theorya geographical theory that refers to how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD increases or decreases; suggests that only commercial landlords can afford the land within the CBD
Break-of-bulk pointA location where large shipments of goods are broken up into smaller containers for delivery to local markets
Carrier efficiencyspeeed and cost of forms of transportation
Comparative advantagethe ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers
Cumulative causationmultiple changes are set in motion by one even
DeglomerationThe dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration
Economies of scaleCharacterizes a production process in which an increase in the scale of the firm causes a decrease in the long run average cost of each unit
EcotourismA form of tourism, based on the enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders, that aims to provide an experience of nature or culture in an environmentally sustainable way
Entrepota trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties
Export processing zoneAreas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries
FerrousContains iron
Fixed costsExpenses that do not change in proportion to the activity of a business
Footloose industryManufacturing activities in which cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for determining the location of the industry
Growth polesurban center with certain attributes that, if augmented by investment, will stimulate regional economic development
Industrial location theoryA concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration
Receding industryindustry is diminishing in size and importance
Growing industryindustry is increasing in size and importance
InfrastructureA collective term that refers to public works such as a system of highways, railroads, and airports
Labor-intensiveAn industry in which wages and other compensation paid to employees constitute a high percentage of expenses
Least-cost locationA concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration
NonferrousDoes not contain iron
Market orientationa philosophy that assumes that a sale does not depend on an aggressive sales force but rather on a customer’s decision to purchase product; it is synonymous with the marketing concept
Multiplier effectan effect in which increased spending produces an increase in revenue greater than the initial amount spent
Resource crisisWhen resources for a national or global market run low
Resource orientationtendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources
Site factorsinvolve the physical characteristics of an area
Situation factorsinvolve characteristics relative to a specific area or place
Specialized economic zonesspecific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
Substitution principletransition to a more environmentally friendly product
TextileWoven fabric
Threshold/rangeThe population required to make provision of services economically feasible or the minimum market needed to support the supply of a product or service
Time-space compressionthrough processes such as globalization time is accelerated and the significance of space is reduced
Trade (complementarity)the idea that one country(country A) can produce products that another country (country B) can’t; the other country (country B) will then trade for those products with its own products that the other country (country A) can’t produce
Transnational corporationA company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
UbiquitousSomething’s ability to be found anywhere at any time
Variable costsexpenses that change with the number of products produced
Alfred WeberCreator of the model that states that the optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization
Weight gaining industryMakes something that gains volume or weight during production
Weight loosing industryAn industry in which the inputs weigh more than the final products
World citiesA group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
Acid rainWhen acids dissolved in water are in rain, snow, or fog
Air pollutionpollution of the atmosphere
Acid depositionTiny droplets of sulfuric acid and nitric acid form and return to earths surface
Biochemical oxygen demandThe oxygen consumed by the decomposing organic waste
ChlorofluorocarbonSynthetic organic compounds first created in the 1950s and primarily used as refrigerants and as propellants; involvement in the destruction of the ozone layer led to the signing of the Montreal Protocol
Greenhouse effectwarming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
Non point-source pollutionComes from a large, diffuse area
Photochemical smogForms in the presence of sunlight, hydrocarbons, as well as nitrogen oxides; causes respiratory problems, stinging in the eyes, and an ugly haze over cities
Point-source pollutionEnters a body of water at a specific location
Ozonelayer in the upper atmosphere located between 30 and 45 kilometers above the Earth’s surface; acts as a filter for the Sun’s harmful UV rays
Ozone depletionthinning of Earth’s ozone layer caused by CFC’s leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
Sanitary landfillDisposal site for non-hazardous solid waste that is spread in layers and compacted to the smallest practical volume
Assembly line production/fordismSystem of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford
DeindustrializationLoss of industrial activity in a region
International division of laborTransfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries
Just-in-time deliveryoccurs when the factory is located close to market and supplier to reduce need for stalk items and supplies
MaquiladorasPlants in Mexico near US border
New international division of laborThe selective transfer of some jobs to developing countries
OutsourcingSending industrial processes out for external production
Post-fordist productionSometimes used to describe lean production; contrast to fordist production
Postindustrialof or relating to a society or economy marked by a lessened importance of manufacturing and an increase of services, information, and research
Right-to-work lawRequires a factory to maintain a so-called “open shop” and prohibits a “closed shop”
TopocideDeliberate killing of a place through inddustrial expansion and change so its landscape is destroyed
Vertical integrationOutsourcing contrasts with the approach typical of traditional mass production; country controls all phases of a highly complex production process