Biology 27-28 quizzes

Oxygen constantly diffuses from air or water into an animal’s bloodstream. For this to happen, the concentration of oxygen in the blood must be?Lower than the concentration of oxygen in the air or water
In general more complex animals are?more likely to have a digestive tract than to have a gastrovascular cavity.
Humans have lungs with alveoli. This implies that humanshave a higher metabolic rate than amphibians and reptiles
Which of the following statements is true about gas diffusion across respiratory membranes?Gases diffuse from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
By pumping water over their gills, fish and aquatic molluskspromote diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Some mollusks are detritivores. Their main source of food comes fromdecaying plant and animal remains
Gases diffuse most efficiently across athin, moist, selectively permeable membrane.
Mantle cavities, tracheal tubes, and book lungs are all types of respiratory structures interrestrial invertebrates.
An organism might rely on the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through their outer body covering if it issmall and lives in water.
Aquatic animals that strain floating plants and animals from the water that they live in arefilter feeders
An animal that relies on a digestive tract for digestion breaks down food byextracellular digestion only
A parasite is a type ofSymbiont
Which of the following groups of animals has the most efficient gas exchange?Birds
Look at the teeth in Figure 27-1. The teeth in this skull are best suited forgrinding leaves
A side-to-side movement of the jaws would be most useful in an animal that eatsGrass
Which of the following aquatic animals uses lungs to breathe?Dolphins
A gastrovascular cavity is thebody space in some invertebrates where digestive and circulatory functions occur.
Intracellular digestion occurs when food is digestedInside specialized cells
In what way does living on land present a challenge to terrestrial animals?They must keep their respiratory membranes moist, even in dry environments
27.3-27.4⬇️
The white paste that birds excrete isUric acid
Many freshwater invertebrates eliminate ammonia bysimple diffusion across the skin.
Which of the following animals has a three-chambered heart?
A. African bullfrog
B. Garter snak
C. Dog
D. Trout
A. African bullfrog
Both oysters and squid are mollusks. Why is an open circulatory system adequate for an oyster but not for a squid?Oysters do not move around, but squid are very active.
Why is double-loop circulation better for larger, more active animals than single-loop?It is difficult for single pump to force blood through the entire system of a large animal.
How do saltwater fishes conserve water?Their kidneys produce small amounts of concentrated urine.
As shown in Figure 27-3, the ventricle in a single-loop circulatory system is responsible forpumping blood out to the gills.
Excretion is the process ofremoving metabolic wastes from the body
Kidneys that can conserve water are essential to homeostasis becausesome animals live in dry or salty environments.
Butterflies and house flies convert ammonia to uric acid in theirMalpighian tubules.
closed circulatory system is one in whichblood flows through a system of blood vessels throughout the body
Kidneys process nitrogenous wastes bypumping ions across membranes to separate water from waste products.
In annelids, nitrogen-containing wastes are processed bynephridia
Which of the following excretory processes do saltwater and freshwater fishes share?They both actively pump salt across their gills.
A kangaroo rat conserves water byexcreting highly concentrated urine and very dry feces.
In the open circulatory system of some mollusks, blood is foundin blood vessels and sinuses.
In vertebrates with a double-loop circulation as illustrated in Figure 27-4, the loop that passes through the lungs is responsible forexchanging carbon dioxide for oxygen from the air.
28.1-28.2⬇️
The part of the vertebrate nervous system that connects the brain and the rest of the body is called theSpinal chord
A collection of sensory neurons and interneurons that are concentrated together is calledCephalization
The part of your brain that is responsible for you responding to this question is theCerebrum
What does molting enable arthropods to do?To grow
The more complex an animal’s response to a stimulus, the more likely it is that the animal hasMany interneurons
Joints are a critical feature of both endoskeletons and exoskeletons becausejoints provide flexibility and freedom of movement.
Which of the following characteristics is associated only with an endoskeleton?It grows with the animal
Study Figure 28-2. The contraction of flexor muscles causes limbs to bend. The contraction of extensor muscles causes limbs to straighten. Based on this information, what is happening to the grasshopper’s leg at point A?The extensor muscle in the femur is contracting and straightening the leg.
Which of the following represents a neural circuit that would be involved in the response to a stimulus?sensory cell ➡️sensory neuron➡️ interneuron ➡️ motor neuron ➡️ muscle
how a muscle moves an arthropod leg?A muscle contracts, pulling on a tendon which is attached to the inside of the exoskeleton.
A tendon is a tough piece of connective tissue thatconnects muscles to bones.
Study Figure 28-1. Which of the letters represents an interneuron?C
Of the following choices, the simplest form of nervous system is aNerve net
The ability to navigate, hunt, and communicate by electric current in water most likely helps make up for the effect of dark, murky water on which sense?Vision
If a butterfly touches sugar water with one of its legs, it usually will begin to feed. If it touches salt water, it usually will not feed. The most likely explanation for this difference in response is that butterflieshave chemical receptors for taste on their legs.
Information in the environment that causes an animal to react isA stimulus
The compound eyes of insectsdetect color and form images.
28.3-28.4⬇️
The mammals whose offspring are little more than embryos areMarsupials
A land snail is an animal that can produce both eggs and sperm at the same time. This animalis a hermaphrodite.
One difference between monotremes and other types of mammals is thatMonotremes secrete milk through pores on the surface of the mother’s abdomen.
The difference between an oviparous and ovoviviparous species is thatonly ovoviviparous embryos can hatch within the mothers’ bodies.
A good way for a lizard to conserve its body heat in cold, windy weather would be toretreat to an underground burrow.
Parthenogenesis is a method of reproduction in whichan egg develops without being fertilized by a sperm.
The shells of amniotic eggs of birds, reptiles, and egg-laying mammals all share which of the following characteristics?They are waterproof.
Gametes are formed byMeiosis
Which of the following groups of animals only uses internal fertilization?Mammals
Endocrine glands are responsible forRegulating body activities
One advantage to being an ectotherm is that an ectothermneeds less energy to maintain homeostasis.
An endotherm is an animal thatregulates its body temperature partly by generating its own body heat.
Study Figure 28-4. Which of the following conclusions about body temperature can be drawn from this graph?A lizard’s body temperature is about the same as the temperature of its environment.
External fertilization in chordatesmust take place in water.
An animal’s immune system must be able to tell the difference betweenbody cells and pathogens.
Synchronizing gamete release during external fertilization increases the chance thateggs will be fertilized.
The type of development shown in Figure 28-3 is the result ofIncomplete metamorphosis