Ch 14 psychology

1. The unique and relatively stable ways in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels is called ______.

a. personality
b. nurture
c. a trait
d. nature

1. a. personality
3. The ________ theory of personality has its basis in the theories of learning, and focuses on the effects of environment on one’s personal characteristics and actions.

a. psychodynamic
b. humanistic
c. trait
d. behaviorist

3. d. behaviorist
4. Which theory of personality was a direct reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives?

a. humanistic perspective
b. trait perspective
c. projective perspective
d. inventory perspective

4. a. humanistic perspective
40. Maria is a retired factory worker who lives with anxiety. Due to the fear of having anxiety attacks, she does not leave her house. This makes her feel trapped in her home, which creates distress. Which criterion would be most appropriate in deciding whether Maria’s case represents an example of abnormality?

a. statistical rarity
b. subjective discomfort
c. situational context
d. social norm deviance

40. b. subjective discomfort
41. One sign of abnormality is when a person engages in behavior that creates a great deal of emotional distress or ______.

a. subjective discomfort
b. social deviance
c. statistical rarity
d. situational context

41. a. subjective discomfort
42. Dave, a graduate student, has difficulty talking to groups. Unfortunately, he has chosen a career in which he must speak to large groups of people. The night before a presentation he tosses and turns, and the resulting lack of sleep makes the situation worse. When he makes a presentation, he often becomes confused and stumbles over his words. As a result, he feels worthless and miserable. Which two criteria of abnormal behavior are most useful in analyzing this case?

a. inability to function normally and statistical rarity
b. subjective discomfort and inability to function normally
c. statistical rarity and deviance from social norms
d. deviance from social norms and subjective discomfort

42. b. subjective discomfort and inability to function normally
43. The ______ model of mental illness explains that disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia are caused by chemical imbalances, genetic problems, brain damage or dysfunction, or some combination of those causes.

a. biological
b. psychodynamic
c. naturalistic
d. cognitive-behavioral

43. a. biological
44. The psychoanalytic model of abnormal behavior is based on the work of ______.

a. Freud
b. Perls
c. Rogers
d. Skinner

44. a. Freud
45. The psychoanalytic model holds that abnormal behavior is the result of ______.

a. learning
b. repressed thoughts, memories, and concerns
c. biology
d. biochemical imbalances

45. b. repressed thoughts, memories, and concerns
46. According to the behaviorists, disordered behavior is a result of ________.

a. repressed thoughts and memories that try to resurface
b. a set of learned responses
c. illogical thinking patterns
d. chemical imbalances and brain damage

46. b. a set of learned responses
47. Linda is afraid of cats because when she was a little girl a cat scared her by jumping out of her closet and onto her face. As a result of this experience, Linda learned to be afraid of cats. Which model of abnormality offers the best explanation of Linda’s fear?

a. cognitive
b. behavioral
c. sociocultural
d. psychoanalytic

47. b. behavioral
48. According to the cognitive perspective, disordered behavior is the result of ______.

a. repressed thoughts and memories that try to resurface
b. a set of learned responses
c. illogical thinking patterns
d. chemical imbalances and brain damage

48. c. illogical thinking patterns
49. A cognitive therapist is working with a depressed client. Which of the following causes is the likely focus of this therapist’s intervention?

a. learned behaviors of depression
b. unusual levels of neurotransmitters
c. negative interpretations of life events
d. a superego that is too harsh and strict

49. c. negative interpretations of life events
50. _______is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders.

a. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
b. The Physician’s Desk Reference
c. The Textbook of Psychological Disorders
d. The Textbook of Physiological Disorders

50. a. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
51. The primary purpose of the DSM-IV-TR is to _____.

a. help psychologists assess only normal behavior
b. keep the number of diagnostic categories of mental disorders to a minimum
c. help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders
d. describe the causes of common physiological disorders

51. c. help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders
52. How many axes of data are considered in a full DSM-based diagnosis?

a. 3
b. 5
c. 6
d. 10

52. b. 5
53. When a psychologist or psychiatrist is using the DSM-IV-TR as a guide to evaluating a client, he or she would assess the client on each of five ______.

a. axes
b. stages
c. phases
d. steps

53. a. axes
54. Which of the following is NOT an Axis I disorder of the DSM-IV-TR?

a. sexual and gender identity disorders
b. factitious disorders
c. personality disorders
d. substance-related disorders

54. c. personality disorders
55. Axis I of the DSM-IV-TR consists of _______.

a. global assessment of functioning
b. clinical disorders and other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
c. psychosocial and environmental problems
d. personality disorders and mental retardation

55. b. clinical disorders and other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
56. Axis II of the DSM-IV-TR consists of ________.

a. global assessment of functioning
b. clinical disorders and other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
c. psychosocial and environmental problems
d. personality disorders and mental retardation

56. d. personality disorders and mental retardation
57. Axis III of the DSM-IV-TR includes ________.

a. physical disorders that affect a person’s psychological adjustment
b. all psychological disorders except personality disorders
c. information about problems in the person’s life that might affect adjustment, such as death of a loved one
d. an overall judgment made by the psychological professional of the person’s mental health and adjustment based on a scale from 0 to 100

57. a. physical disorders that affect a person’s psychological adjustment
58. Axis IV of the DSM-IV-TR includes ________.

a. all physical disorders that affect a person’s psychological adjustment
b. all psychological disorders except personality disorders
c. information about problems in the person’s life that might affect adjustment, such as death of a loved one
d. an overall judgment made by the psychological professional of the person’s mental health and adjustment based on a scale from 0 to 100

58. c. information about problems in the person’s life that might affect adjustment, such as death of a loved one
59. Which axis of the DSM-IV-TR contains an overall judgment made by the psychological professional of the person’s mental health and adjustment based on a scale from 0 to 100?

a. Axis II
b. Axis III
c. Axis IV
d. Axis V

59. d. Axis V
60. What of the following is the most commonly diagnosed psychological disorder in the United States?

a. generalized anxiety disorder
b. dysthymic disorder
c. substance-abuse disorder
d. schizophrenia

60. b. dysthymic disorder
61. What is the most frequently diagnosed anxiety disorder in the United States?

a. specific phobia
b. social phobia
c. post-traumatic stress disorder
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder

61. a. specific phobia
62. Excessive or unrealistic fearfulness and worry are characteristic of ______.

a. mood disorders
b. dissociative neurosis
c. anxiety disorders
d. amnesia

62. c. anxiety disorders
63. An irrational, persistent fear of something is called a ______.

a. mania
b. obsession
c. phobia
d. compulsion

63. c. phobia
64. People who have a(n) ______ are afraid of being evaluated in some negative way by others, so they tend to avoid situations that can be embarrassing.

a. agoraphobia
b. social phobia
c. specific phobia
d. interactive phobia

64. b. social phobia
65. Fears of snakes, thunderstorms, darkness, and water are classified as ______ phobias.

a. specific
b. social
c. primary
d. innate

65. a. specific
66. Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible if something should go wrong is called ______.

a. agoraphobia
b. a social phobia
c. a specific phobia
d. trypanophobia

66. a. agoraphobia
67. Which of the following is the term used to describe a sudden onset of extreme panic with various symptoms including racing heart, rapid breathing, and sweating?

a. phobia
b. compulsion
c. panic attack
d. affective disorder

67. c. panic attack
68. A disorder in which intruding thoughts that occur again and again are followed by repetitive, ritualistic behavior meant to lower the anxiety caused by the thoughts is called ______ disorder.

a. obsessive-compulsive
b. delusional
c. post-traumatic stress
d. passive-aggressive

68. a. obsessive-compulsive
69. Intruding thoughts that occur again and again are called _________. Repetitive, ritualistic behaviors are called________.

a. intrusions; impulses
b. obsessions; compulsions
c. impulses; intrusions
d. compulsions; obsessions

69. b. obsessions; compulsions
70. The behavioral perspective views anxiety as ______.

a. a danger signal that repressed conflicts are threatening to surface
b. a learned reaction
c. the result of illogical, irrational thought processes
d. linked to an imbalance in several neurotransmitters in the nervous system

70. b. a learned reaction
71. Sandy has the tendency to make everything seem so much worse than it actually is. Beck would say that Sandy has a tendency to engage in _______.

a. overgeneralization
b. minimization
c. all-or-nothing-thinking
d. magnification

71. d. magnification
72. Disorders characterized by disturbances in emotion are known as ______ disorders.

a. conversion
b. somatoform
c. mood
d. dissociative

72. c. mood
73. The term affect is used by psychologists to refer to ______.

a. thought
b. emotion
c. behavior
d. intuition

73. b. emotion
74. Which of the following best describes dysthymia?

a. a mild, chronic form of depression
b. a severe, intermittent form of depression
c. a form of depression that affects biological functions such as appetite
d. a form of depression that is very responsive to electroconvulsive therapy

74. a. a mild, chronic form of depression
75. Severe depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause is called ______.

a. dysthymia
b. bipolar disorder
c. hypomania
d. major depression

75. d. major depression
76. A person who suffers from bipolar disorder alternates between ________.

a. anxiety and mania
b. depression and manic episodes
c. mania and schizophrenia
d. depression and schizophrenia

76. b. depression and manic episodes
77. Which cognitive event, often attributed to the work of Martin Seligman, is hypothesized as contributing to the development and maintenance of major depression?

a. self-efficacy
b. learned helplessness
c. reciprocal determinism
d. all-or-none thinking

77. b. learned helplessness
78. A person who is suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations and who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality is likely suffering from_______.

a. schizophrenia
b. bipolar disorder
c. a dissociative disorder
d. passive-aggressive personality

78. a. schizophrenia
79. False beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness are known as ______.

a. delusions
b. hallucinations
c. obsessions
d. compulsions

79. a. delusions
80. Delusions of ________are false beliefs held by a person who is convinced that others are trying to hurt them in some way.

a. persecution
b. grandeur
c. reference
d. influence

80. a. persecution
81. False sensory perceptions that often take the form of hearing voices are called ______.

a. delusions
b. hallucinations
c. obsessions
d. compulsions

81. b. hallucinations
82. Laurie, a 30-year-old homemaker, has delusions and hallucinations, often acts silly, giggles loudly and inappropriately, makes odd gestures, and does not bathe or change her clothes regularly. Her symptoms indicate she is suffering from ______ schizophrenia.

a. disorganized
b. catatonic
c. undifferentiated
d. paranoid

82. a. disorganized
83. The primary feature of ______ schizophrenia is severe disturbance of motor behavior.

a. disorganized
b. catatonic
c. residual
d. paranoid

83. b. catatonic
84. People with ______ disorders have an excessively rigid, maladaptive pattern of behavior and ways of relating to others.

a. personality
b. somatoform
c. affective
d. schizophrenic

84. a. personality
85. John has made a career of stealing older people’s retirement money by taking advantage of their trust and selling them phony retirement investments. John explains that he has done nothing wrong—if these people were not so greedy, they would not be so eager to invest in his phony schemes. In his mind, his victims got exactly what they deserved. John’s behavior and attitude are typical of someone with ______ personality disorder.

a. schizoid
b. schizotypal
c. passive-aggressive
d. antisocial

85. d. antisocial
86. Which of the following people would be most likely to receive a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder?

a. Marlon, who works as a long-distance truck driver so that he doesn’t have to interact with people more than necessary.
b. Monet, who cannot make a decision without first knowing what her boyfriend thinks is best.
c. Jared, who enjoys stealing cars and going for joy rides around his neighborhood.
d. Lizette, who has a history of multiple suicide attempts.

86. c. Jared, who enjoys stealing cars and going for joy rides around his neighborhood.
87. Marty is moody, manipulative, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. He wants to have close relationships but is unable to do so because he is untrusting of others. Marty is suffering from ______ personality disorder.

a. antisocial
b. avoidant
c. dependent
d. borderline

87. d. borderline
97. What is a major goal of the Gestalt therapist?

a. to facilitate transference
b. to eliminate the client’s undesirable behaviors
c. to provide unconditional positive regard
d. to help clients become more aware of their own feelings

97. d. to help clients become more aware of their own feelings
102. The form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an unpleasant stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior is called _______.

a. token economy
b. operant conditioning
c. aversion therapy
d. participant modeling

102. c. aversion therapy
103. Therapy that depends on identifying and changing distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs is ______ therapy.

a. cognitive
b. psychoanalytic
c. behavior
d. person-centered

103. a. cognitive