Chapter 8 Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood

androgynythe presence of masculine and feminine personality characteristics in one individual
associativePlay in which children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another’s behavior
authoritarianA child rearing style that is low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting. It my way or the highway
authoritativeA child rearing style that is the most successful approach; involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting
child rearing stylesDifferent combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate
cooperative__________ play is a more advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme.
constancyGender ——— is the concept that gender does not change regardless of how one behaves or what clothes one wears
identityGender _________ is an individual’s sense of being either masculine or feminine in characteristics
gender schema theoryinformation-processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental features. It explains how environmental pressures and children’s cognitions work together to shape gender role development
typingGender ———- is any association of objects, activities, roles, or traits with biological sex in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes of gender
inductiondiscipline in which an adult helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child’s misbehavior on others.
initiative vs guilt3-6 yrs, good: sense of purpose, ability to initiate activities, ability to enjoy accomplishment, bad: fear of punishment, restrict himself, show off. Erikson
matters of personal choicechoice of friends, hairstyle, and leisure activities, which do not violate rights and are up to the individual are viewed as _____________
moral imperativesrules and expectations that protect people’s rights and welfare
nonsocial activityunoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
parallelType of play where the child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
permissiveWarm and accepting but uninvolved, either overindulgent or inattentive… engage in little behavior control, allow children to make many decisions for themselves at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so describes the _________ child rearing style.
physical__________ aggression harms others through physical injury, acts such as hitting or pushing with an intent to harm.
proactive_________ aggression is unemotional aggression aimed at fulfilling a need or desire
altruistic behaviorhelping behavior that is not linked to personal gain; recognition and reward are not expected
prosocial behaviorVoluntary behavior that is carried out to benefit another person
psychological___________ control behaviors intrude on and manipulate children’s verbal expression, individuality, and attachments to parents.
reactive__________ aggression is an angry defensive response to frustration or provocation meant to hurt another person
relational____________ aggression damages another’s peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
conceptself _________ is the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is.
esteemself _________ is the judgements we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements.
social conventionscustoms determined solely by consensus, such as table manners and politeness rituals
sympathyfeelings of concern or sorrow for another’s plight
time outremoving children from the immediate setting until they are ready to act appropriately.
uninvolvedtype of child rearing style which combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy
verbal____________ aggression harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing
initiativenew sense of purposefulness, eagerness to try new tasks, play permits trying out new skills, strides in conscience development
Guiltoverly strict superego or conscience, causing too much guilt, related to parental threats, criticism or punishment.
understandingSelf __________ comes from emerging language skills that enable children to discuss inner mental states. Self awareness supports development of self concept
empathicAs the ability to take another’s perspective improves, ——– responding increases.
morePreschool teachers tend to
give girls ——- encouragement than boys to participate in adult-structured activities.
pretendCaregivers who view play as mere entertainment are less likely to encourage ________ play than those who value its cognitive and social benefits
moralityAccording to social learning theorists, ________ is acquired through reinforcement and modeling.
behaviorAccording to cognitive-developmental theory, self-perceptions come before __________ in the development of gender identity.
aggressiveVerbally and relationally _________ acts are particularly frequent in reality TV shows.
changeA few minutes in time out can be enough to ______ behavior and also allows parents time to cool off.
playAccording to Erikson’s theory, children best learn to cooperate to achieve goals through ________.
intense shameAmong Western children, __________ is associated with feelings of personal inadequacy and with maladjustment.
superegoAccording to Freud, children obey the ________ to avoid guilt.
empathyFeeling with another person and responding emotionally in a similar way.
eagerAccording to Erikson, young children are —– to tackle new tasks, join in activities with peers and discover what they can do with the help of adults.
strictAccording to Erikson, the negative outcome of early childhood is an overly —- conscience that causes children to feel too much guilt.
break downWhen children feel too much guilt, their exuberant play and bold efforts to master new tasks —-.
emotional self regulationstrategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
effortful controlInhibiting impulses and shifting attention through _____________ are vital in managing emotion during early childhood
guiltThe psychoanalytic perspective says children obey the superego to avoid ——, the painful emotion that arises each time they are tempted to misbehave.
parental loveFreud believed fear of punishment and loss of ——– motivates conscience formation and moral behavior.
reinforcementAccording to social learning theory, moral behavior is acquired like any other set of responses: through ———- and modeling.
operant conditioningreinforcement for good behavior with approval, affection and other rewards.
active thinkersIn the cognitive-developmental model of morality, the children are —– about social rules.
physical abuseAssaults, such as kicking, biting, shaking that inflict physical injury.
sexual abuseFondling, exhibitionism, production of pornography.
NeglectFailure to meet a child’s basic needs for food, clothing, medical attention, education, or supervision.
emotional abuseacts that could cause serious mental or behavioral disorders, including social isolation, repeated unreasonable demands, ridicule, humiliation, intimidation.
emotionalabusive parents react to stressful situations with high —— arousal
effectiveResearch on emotional understanding shows that preschoolers come up with ________ ways to relieve others’ negative feelings.
beliefsAdults can combat children’s gender stereotyped _________ by asking children to avoid using gender labels
girlFour-year-old Cain watches an adult dress a boy doll in girl’s clothing. Cain is likely to insist that the doll is now a ________.
girlsThree-year-old Nathan is a gender-schematic child. Because Nathan does not like raisins, he is likely to conclude that only __________ like(s) raisins.
activeOf all preschool children, Xander, who is_______, is the most likely to be a target of harsh, inconsistent discipline.
superegoAccording to Freud, children obey the _______ to avoid guilt
self perceptions, behaviorAccording to cognitive-developmental theory, __________ come(s) before __________ in the development of gender identity.
emotionalBetween ages 2 and 6, ___________ self-regulation improves.
typingGender __________ refers to any association of objects, activities, roles, or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes.
?Mr. Cortez explains to his 5-year-old daughter that she should not talk loudly at the library because other people are trying to read. Mr. Cortez’s explanation is an example of
prosocialEmpathy serves as an important motivator of __________ behavior
autonomyAccording to Erikson, once children have a sense of ___________, they become less contrary than they were as toddlers.
typeConcerning peer sociability, it is the _________, not the amount, of solitary and parallel play that changes in early childhood.
compassionateWithin the development of morality, truly moral individuals have developed ____________ concerns and principles of good conduct.
emotionalBetween ages 2 and 6, __________ self-regulation improves.
haveWhen asked “Tell me about yourself,” which of the following is 3-year-old Riley the most likely to say?
“I _____ new, blue shoes.”
sociableFour-year-old Simka is __________ and good at regulating emotion. She is likely to help, share, and comfort others in distress.
senseGiving young children reasons for changing their behavior encourages them to adopt moral standards because they make_______.
narrativesSelf-evaluative __________ are a major means through which caregivers imbue the young child’s self-concept with cultural values.
competitionTypical parents give their sons toys that emphasize