BSU Psychology 101: Unit 4 (Henderson)

Cassandra’s mother told her, “You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside.” This remark best illustrates the ___ theory of emotion.James-Lange
A deep neural center activated when people smell some disgusting food or when they feel moral disgust in response to a perceived injustice is called the ___.insula
According to drive-reduction theory, a need refers to a ___.physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal
Research has shown that neck-level spinal cord injuries reduce the intensity of certain emotional experiences. This finding supports ___.the James-Lange theory
As her professor distributed the mathematics tests to the class, Blair’s heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her ___ nervous system.sympathetic
According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, test performance is typically ___ when physiological arousal is; moderate
Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other. They would be best advised to spend time looking intently at one another’s ___.eyes
In addition to secreting orexin, the ___ monitors levels of the body’s other appetite hormones.hypothalamus
Our need to belong is most clearly threatened by ___.ostracism
According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ___ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, we experience emotion ___ we become physiologically aroused.after; at the same time as
Maureen is an introvert, who prefers staying in and reading a good book. Her friend Paula is an extrovert, who would much rather spend her time partying. In terms of their ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion and express emotions, ___.Maureen is better at recognition and Paula is more expressive
The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow’s hierarchy of human motives includes the need for and water
Without any conscious effort, your ___ prepares you to fight or flee from dangerous situations.autonomic nervous system
Noticing that his hear was pounding and that his palms were sweaty while he was taking a difficult test, Harley concluded that he was “anxious”. Noting that his hear was pounding and his palms were sweaty when an attractive lady asked him to dance, Harley concluded that he was “falling in love”. The differing emotions experienced by Harley can be st be explained by ___.the two-factor theory
Increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex is to ___ as increased activity in the left frontal lobe is to ___.disgust; joy
Narcissism refers to feeling ___.self-important
A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is a natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient’s fear is best understood in terms of ___.the two-factor theory
In an experiment to test the spillover effect, college men injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with an experimenter’s accomplice who acted either euphoric or irritated. Which individuals in this experiment were least likely to experience the emotion demonstrated by the experimenter’s accomplice?those who were told that the injection would cause them to become physiologically aroused
People experience a mood shift when they switch from taking short shuffling steps to taking long strides and swinging their arms by their side. This best illustrates ___.the behavior feedback effect
Lee was momentarily terrified by a passing automobile nearly sideswiped his car. When one of his passengers joked that he almost had a two-color car, Lee laughed uncontrollably. Lee’s emotional volatility best illustrates ___.the spillover effect
According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ___ and ___.a cognitive label; physical arousal
Motivation is defined by psychologists as ___.a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal
The level of serotonin in the brain is ___.increased by a diet high in carbohydrates
Emotional delight is to emotional disgust as ___ is to ___.left prefrontal cortex activation; right prefrontal cortex activation
The fact that people from widely different cultures display and interpret facial expressions of emotion in a similar manner best illustrates the impact of ___.human genetic similarities
The level of physiological arousal typically associated with peak performance tends to be ___.lower on tasks that are difficult
The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of ___.boredom
The greatest number of deaths in Africa today result from ___.AIDS
Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic ___.personality traits
The use of positive emotion words in text messaging is best predicted by the Big Five trait of ___.agreeableness
Evidence suggests that ___ may foster neurogenesis.aerobic exercise
An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her ___.personality
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of ___.self-determination
The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by ___.exhaustion
Depression increases the risk of death, especially death from ___.coronary heart disease
One genetic maker of an optimistic personality style is a receptor gene for the hormone ___.oxytocin
Heritability generally runs about ___ percent or a tad more for each of the Big Five trait dimensions.50
An understanding of how stress affects our resistance to disease is the central focus of ___.psychoneuroimmunology
Immune system cells that pursue and destroy diseased body cells are called ___.NK cells
Those who perceive an internal locus of control believe that ___.individuals can influence their own outcomes in life
Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates ___.self-serving bias
Aerobic exercise is associated with ___.increased levels of serotonin and increased levels of the endorphins
People are especially likely to demonstrate an increase in ___ during their twenties.conscientiousness
The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of ___.behavioral consistency
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as ___.problem-focused coping
The relaxation response associated with meditation is most likely to ___.decrease oxygen consumption and decrease blood pressure
In contemporary psychology, the self is considered to be the ___.organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions
According to Freud, the unconscious is ___.the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware
Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely to ___.cope effectively with stress
Mindfulness meditation has been shown to reduce ___.anxiety
Addressing stressors with problem-focused coping would be most characteristic of those with ___.personal control
Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of ___.openness
Maslow placed ___ at the base of his hierarchy of needs.bodily needs
Gender identity refers to ___.the sense of being male or female
The ABC program is an educational program designed to prevent ___.HIV infections
Freud believed that the manifest content of dreams consisted of ___.censored expressions of unconscious wishes
Personality is fruitfully studied at multiple levels of analysis because people are best understood as ___.biopsychosocial organisms
Which of the following suggestions would be the WORST advice for a dieter?“Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening.”
Which of the following factors has been found to be clearly related to feelings of general happiness or life satisfaction?having an active religious faith
People who take personality inventories can lie in order to create a good impression. This best illustrates that the objectivity in scoring personality inventories does not guarantee that they ___.have validity
Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Laura’s lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of external locus of control
A frontal lobe area involved in ___ is ___ active in extraverts than in introverts.restraining behavior; less
Two-year-old Damien frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence from their control. Freud would have suggested that Damien is going through the ___ stage of development.anal
Which theory would be most likely to predict that rats are motivated to explore precisely those areas of an experimental maze where they receive mild electric shocks?arousal theory
In a series of studies, research participants were informed that personality test results indicated they were the type likely to end up alone later in life. As a result, they became ___ likely to underperform on aptitude tests and ___ likely to become aggressive toward those who had excluded them.
Mrs. Sunstedt believes that parents should accept and try to understand their children’s feelings and should honestly disclose their own inner feelings to their children.. Her approach to parent-child interaction was most explicitly recommended by ___.Carl Rogers
Those who engage in excess Internet socializing during work hours should be reminded that electronic message alerts, Facebook postings, and Internet pop-ups hijack ___.attention
Alex experiences little stress because he expects things to work out the way he wants them to. This best illustrates the value of ___.optimism
Resisting the temptation to eat chocolate chip cookies led research participants to subsequently give up sooner than normal on efforts to complete a tedious task. This illustrated that self-control momentarily weakens following ___.the exercise of willpower
People’s scores on a test of extraversion are ___ predictors of how extraverted they will act in one particular situation. Their scores are ___ predictors of how extraverted they will act on average over many different situations.
Bruce wants to be a loving husband but at the same time wants to express his disgust for some of his wife’s habits. According to Freud, Bruce’s ___ might enable him to partially satisfy both desires.ego
After resisting a strong temptation to overeat during a lengthy but sumptuous all-you-can-eat buffet dinner, Jason was unable to resist the temptation to drink too much alcohol during an important after-dinner business meeting. Jason’s excess consumption of alcohol best illustrated the impact of ___.
People are most likely to dislike the taste of ___ foods.novel
When her son fails to arrive home as expected, Elena fears he has been in an accident. Both her heart and respiration rate remain elevated until she sees him come safely through the door. Her body soon returns to normal due to the action of her ___ nervous system.parasympathetic
Jin is searching for a sense of purpose in life that goes beyond fulfilling her own potential for growth and self-actualization. According to Maslow, Jin is striving for ___.self-transcendence
As presented in lecture Yerkes-Dodson Law states that ___ is/are good in moderation to get things done.
As presented in lecture, if Dr. Henderson says “Wow, she must be really angry with me”, when in fact Dr Henderson is actually angry with her, this is an example of the dense mechanism called ___.projection
As presented in lecture drives are ___ and needs are ___.physiological; biological
As presented in lecture personality is primarily ___, according to the psychodynamic perspective.unconscious
As discussed in lecture, conscious processing is the same as ___.
As presented in lecture, ___ developed the Psychoanalytic Theory and the concepts of psychoanalysis.Sigmund Freud
As presented in lecture when there is an inconsistency between verbal and non-verbal communication (a/an) ___ is implied.
As presented in lecture, the ___ acts as a filter in regards to the Psychoanalytic Theory and is analogous to the ___.super-ego; preconscious
In lecture, Dr Henderson stated that she once said “razor brand” instead of “Raisin Brand”. This is a classic example of a(n) ___.Freudian slip
The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear or happiness is called ___.the facial feedback effort
Boyd, a suspect in a criminal investigation, has agreed to take a lie detector test. The machine used in this test is most likely to measure his ___.perspiration levels
A polygraph examination of a suspected murder included an assessment of his reaction to a detailed description of the victim’s clothing and death wounds- details that would be known only to a person at the scene of the crime. The investigators were making use of the ___.guilty knowledge test
An aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a
Research on the accuracy of lie detector tests suggests that they ___.are more likely to declare the innocent guilty than to declare the guilty innocent
Repeatedly saying the word “me” puts people in a better mood than repeatedly saying “you”. This best illustrates ___.the facial feedback effect
An instinctive behavior is one that is ___.unlearned
Maslow referred to the needs for purpose and meaning that lie beyond the self as ___.self-transcendence needs
Insulin, a hormone that influences appetite, is secreted by the ___.pancreas
Orexin is a ___ hormone secreted by the ___.hunger arousing; hypothalamus
According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the body’s arousal is related to the sympathetic nervous system in the same way that subjective awareness of emotion is related to the ___.cortex
Most participants reported feeling more happy than sad after rubberbands secured to their sides of their faces were stretched over the tops of their heads. Their reactions best illustrated ___.the facial feedback effect
It is characteristic of bears to hibernate. This behavior is an example of instinct
Most humans are genetically predisposed to ___.form close enduring relationships with fellow humans
The importance of unconscious conflicts and childhood experiences is of most central importance to ___.psychodynamic theories
According toe Freud, the unconscious is ___.the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware
By professional training, Freud was a ___.physician
According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the ___.ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized
A sense of personal self-worth is called ___.self-esteem
The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of traits and ___.situations
Jed wants his roommate Dante to help him study for a physics test. Dante is most likely to want to help after he has ___.received an A on his psychology test
The adaptation-level phenomenon refers to the ___.tendency for standards of judgement to be heavily influenced by previous experiences
The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of ___.factor analysis
Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the ___.collective unconscious
Carl Rogers suggested that the ___ is a central feature of personality.self-concept
Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Frreudian, disputed Freud’s assumption that women ___.have weak superegos
Narcissism is associated with ___.more gambling and more cheating
Freud referred to the largely conscious “executive” part of the personality as the ___.ego
One of the major pillars of the positive psychology movement involves the study of ___.character strengths
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of ___.conscientiousness
Emotional instability is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of ___.neurotiscism
Alfred Adler was a neo-Freudian who proposed the concept ___.the inferiority complex
Research on self-esteem indicates that most people ___.view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others
Reduced feelings of tension following angry outbursts contribute to ___.the reinforcement of aggression
Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as ___.unconditional positive regard
Sasha believes that the questions on school tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha’s belief most clearly illustrates external locus of control
Chronic anger ___ the risk of heart disease, and chronic depression ___ the risk of heart disease.increases; increases
In one experiment, college men were injected with epinephrine before spending time with either a joyful or an irritated person. The results of this experiment support the idea that ___.our experience of emotion depends on how we interpret the body’s arousal
Botox paralysis of the frowning facial muscles ________ people’s reading of sadness-related sentences and ________ activity in emotion-related brain circuits.slows; slows
Social-cognitive theorists would suggest that the best way to predict a political candidate’s performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual’s ___.past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities
Psychologist Jean Twenge refers to today’s new generation as Generation Me because it expresses high levels of ___.narcissism
Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by environmental as well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term ___.settling point
When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Inge is using the defense mechanism of ___.repression
Israelis living in nonreligious collective settlements were observed to have ___ than those living in religiously orthodox collective settlements.higher rates of death
Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks’ basic personality dimensions she would be classified as ___.unstable-introverted
Our failure to perceive how others interpret our “just kidding” electronic comments illustrates what Piaget called ___.egocentrism
After experiencing the stress of losing her job, Colleen suffered an increased incidence of cold and flu infections. Her increased illness is best attributed to reduced levels of ___.lymphocytes
Surgeons removed a sizable part of Tom’s stomach to prevent the spread of a cancerous tumor. Following a successful recovery, Tom’s reduced appetite for food is most likely attributable to his body’s reduced secretion of ___.ghrelin
Mildly depressed female college students assigned to a program of ___ reported a greater decrease in depression than those assigned to a program of ___.aerobic exercise; relaxation exercises
As discussed in lecture, during a fight, flights, or freeze situation the digestive activity ___ when the ___ nervous system is activated.decreases; sympathetic
As presented in lecture Yerkes-Dodson Law state that ___ is/are good in moderation to get things done.
As discussed in lecture, a physiologically aroused state (ie fight or flight) is associated with the___.sympathetic nervous system
As presented in lecture, when we are in an aroused state our blood flow ___ and our pupils ___.increase; dilate
As discussed in lecture, “A little bit of stress is good” according to the ___.optimum arousal theory