Chapter 7 Sociology

What does the story about the conviction and imprisonment of Bruce Glover suggest about punishment in the United States?Convicts can lose everything important to them while in prison and, after release, they often struggle to fit back into society.
“Crime” differs from “deviance” in that crimerefers to a violation of norms enacted into law.
Every society tries to regulate the behavior of individuals; this general process is called ______.social control
The formal system that responds to alleged violations of the law using police, courts, and prison officials is calledthe criminal justice system.
Based on your reading, it would be correct to say that biological approaches offera very limited understanding of crime.
One of the social foundations of deviance is thatdeviance exists only in relation to cultural norms.
According to Durkheim, functions of deviance includethe idea that responding to deviance promotes social unity
In his study of New England’s Puritans, Kai Erikson concluded thateven this disciplined and highly religious group created deviance to clarify the moral boundaries of their community
The basic idea behind labeling theory is thatdeviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do
Edwin Lemert described “primary deviance” asa passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person’s self-concept.
The concept “retrospective labeling” refers to the process ofinterpreting someone’s past consistent with present deviance.
Thomas Szasz made the controversial assertion that
Whether people respond to deviance as a moral issue or a medical matter affectswhether the person is subject to punishment or treatment.
According to the social-conflict approach, what a society labels as deviant is based primarily ondifferences in power between various categories of people
Crime committed by persons of high social position during the course of their occupations is calledwhite-collar crime
Edwin Sutherland stated that white-collar crimeis usually resolved in a civil rather than a criminal court.
_______ _______refers to the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalfCorporate crime
Organized crime refers toany business that supplies illegal goods or services
A hate crime is defined asa criminal act motivated by race or other bias
Feminist theory states that gender figures into the study of deviance because
Women commitfar fewer crimes than men.
“Crimes against the person” includes all but1)
forcible rape.

2)
murder.

3)
burglary. **

4)
aggravated assault.

Mike reports the theft of his dirt bike from the front yard of his house. The police would record this as which type of crime?robbery
Victimization surveys show that the actual amount of crime in the United States is about _____ what official reports indicate.more than twice as high as
Men, who represent about half the U.S. population, account for about ____ of all arrests for property crime.63 percent
In the United States, men account for about _____ of all arrests for violent crimeabout 80 percent
According to Elliot Currie, factors that explain the high crime rate in the United States by world standards includeour emphasis on individual economic success, which weakens the social fabric.
The concept of due process refers to
Most criminal cases handled by the criminal justice system in the United States are resolvethrough plea bargaining.
Looking back in history, the oldest justification for punishing an offender iretribution
The concept criminal recidivism refers to