AP Psych 7A FINAL

Some information in our fleeting ____ is encoded into short-term memory.
a. repressed memory
b. sensory memory
c. flashbulb memory
d. long-term memory
e. semantic memory
b. sensory memory
The integration of new incoming info with knowledge received from long-term memory involves the activity of
a. implicit memory
b. iconic memory
c. proactive memory
d. working memory
e. semantic memory
d. working memory
Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as
a. recall
b. long-term potentiation
c. automatic processing
d. state-dependent memory
e. chunking
c. automatic processing
Hermann Ebbinghaus’ use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that
a. the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning
b. what is learned in one mood is most easily retrieved in that same mood
c. info that is automatically processed is rarely forgotten
d. our sensory memory capacity is essentially unlimited
e. hypnosis can increase recall of meaningless info
a. the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning
Semantic encoding refers to the processing of
a. sounds
b. meanings
c. visual images
d. unfamiliar units
e. touch sensations
b. meanings
By creating an outline in which specific facts and theories are located within the larger framework of major topics and subtopics, Jasmine can remember much more of what she reads in her textbooks. This best illustrates the benefits of
a. implicit memory
b. the serial position effect
c. hierarchical organization
d. the spacing effect
e. parallel processing
c. hierarchical organization
The address for obtaining tickets to a popular quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the 5-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates ___ memory.
a. iconic
b. flashbulb
c. implicit
d. echoic
e. state-dependent
a. iconic
While your mom is lecturing you about cleaning your room, you lose concentration. Then, suddenly you hear the significant words, “no car keys”. When she asks, “Are you listening to me?” you are able to repeat the last few things she said before mentioning the car keys. Which of the following best explains this phenomenon?
a. Because you have heard the same lecture many times, rehearsal has caused it to be stored in long-term memory.
b. Words stored in echoic memory will last 3 to 4 seconds, so you can still recall her words.
c. What your mom said at the beginning and end of her lecture will be recalled because of the serial position effect.
d. Because losing driving privileges is an emotional event, her words create a flashbulb memory.
e. hearing the words “car keys” leads to the priming of specific memories.
b. Words stored in echoic memory will last 3 to 4 seconds, so you can still recall her words.
Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly ___ bits of info.
a. 3
b. 7
c. 12
d. 24
e. 50
b. 7
Short-term memory is slightly better
a. for auditory info than for visual info
b. for random letters than for random digits
c. in children than adults
d. in females than in males
e. for sensory info than for semantic info
a. for auditory info than for visual info
Long-term potentiation refers to
a. the impact of overlearning on retention
b. an automatic tendency to recall emotionally significant events
c. an increase in a neuron’s firing potential
d. the process of learning something without an conscious memory of having learned it
e. the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
c. an increase in a neuron’s firing potential
Rats given a drug that enhances LTP will learn a maze w half the usual number of mistakes. This suggests that
a. priming is affected by the release of serotonin into the synapse
b. proactive interference is minimized by LTP
c. source amnesia decreases the more the rat runs the maze
d. LTP provides a neural basis for learning and remembering associations
e. state-dependent memories are easily retrieved
d. LTP provides a neural basis for learning and remembering associations
The accuracy of the flashbulb memories of those who witnessed the 2010 earthquake in Haiti best illustrates that memory formation is facilitated by
a. the spacing effect
b. hierarchical organization
c. the serial position effect
d. implicit memory
e. the body’s release of stress hormones
e. the body’s release of stress hormones
After having a stroke, Aaron has great difficulty recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from
a. LTP
b. repression
c. mood-congruent memory
d. amnesia
e. implicit memory
d. amnesia
Cerebellum is to ___ memory as hippocampus is to ___ memory.
a. short-term; long-term
b. long-term; short-term
c. implicit; explicit
d. explicit; implicit
e. iconic; echoic
c. implicit; explicit
Memories are primed by
a. repression
b. retrieval cues
c. retroactive interference
d. the serial position effect
e. source amnesia
b. retrieval cues
Shortly after you see a missing-child poster you are more likely to interpret an ambiguous adult-child interaction as a possible kidnapping. This best illustrates the impact of
a. priming
b. chunking
c. source amnesia
d. retroactive interference
e. state-dependent memory
a. priming
After learning that kicking would move a crib mobile, infants showed that they recalled this learning best if they were tested in the same crib. This best illustrates the impact of ____ on recall.
a. the serial position effect
b. retrieval cues
c. state-dependent memory
d. the spacing effect
e. parallel processing
b. retrieval cues
Walking into your bedroom you think, “I need to get my backpack from the kitchen.” When you reach the kitchen, you forget what you came there for. As you return to your bedroom, you suddenly remember, “Backpack!” This sudden recall is best explained by
a. the misinformation effect
b. context effects
c. source amnesia
d. semantic encoding
e. flashbulb memory formation
b. context effects
Austin can’t remember Jack Smith’s name because he wasn’t paying attention when Jack was formally introduced. Austin’s poor memory is best explained in terms of
a. storage decay
b. proactive interference
c. encoding failure
d. retroactive interference
e. source amnesia
c. encoding failure
To prevent encoding failure you should
a. avoid source amnesia
b. limit parallel processing
c. engage in effortful processing
d. stop LTP
e. encourage priming
c. engage in effortful processing
Memory of your familiar old e-mail password may block the recall of your new password. This illustrates
a. source amnesia
b. retroactive interference
c. the serial position effect
d. proactive interference
e. chunking
d. proactive interference
After reading a newspaper report suggesting that drunken driving might have contributed to a recent auto accident, several people who actually witnessed the accident began to remember the driver involved as traveling more recklessly than was actually the case. This provides an example of
a. proactive interference
b. the serial position effect
c. state-dependent memory
d. the self-reference effect
e. the misinformation effect
e. the misinformation effect
When we fall in love, we tend to overestimate how much we liked our partner when we first began dating. This best illustrates the dynamics of
a. automatic processing
b. the spacing effect
c. proactive interference
d. the serial position effect
e. memory construction
e. memory construction
To gain accurate eyewitness testimony from children, interviewers must
a. be sensitive to repressed memories
b. provide details to the child before the interview
c. use neutral words that children can understand
d. employ leading questions to prompt a response
e. allow children to listen to adults discuss the case before the interview
d. employ leading questions to prompt a response
Repeating someone’s name several times shortly after being introduced to that person is an effective strategy for
a. chunking
b. rehearsal
c. implicit memory
d. automatic processing
e. priming
b. rehearsal
Repression most clearly involves a failure in
a. encoding
b. retrieval
c. storage
d. iconic memory
e. LTP
b. retrieval
The inability to remember how Lincoln’s head appears on a penny is most likely due to a failure in
a. encoding
b. storage
c. retrieval
d. implicit memory
e. iconic memory
a. encoding
Lars was feeling depressed at the time he read a chapter of his history textbook. Lars is likely to recall best the contents of that chapter when he is
a. depressed
b. happy
c. relaxed
d. unemotional
e. excited
a. depressed
Forming many associations between new course material and what you already know is an effective way to build a network of
a. retrieval cues
b. sensory memories
c. state-dependent memories
d. serial position effects
e. iconic memories
a. retrieval cues