Chapter 13: Middle Childhood: Psychosocial Development

Nuclear familyA family that consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children under age 18.
Family functionThe way a family works to meet the needs of its members. Children need families to provide basic material necessities, to encourage learning, to help them develop self-respect, to nurture friendships, and to foster harmony and stability.
ResilienceThe capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress.
Industry versus inferiorityThe fourth of Erikson’s eight psychosocial crises, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.
Family structureThe legal and genetic relationships among relatives living in the same home; includes nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily, and so on.
Aggressive-rejectedRejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior.
Child cultureThe particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society.
Bully-victimSomeone who attacks others and who is attacked as well. (Also called provocative victims because they do things that elicit bullying.)
Effortful controlThe ability to regulate one’s emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination.
Polygamous familyA family consisting of one man, several wives, and their children.
Extended familyA family of three or more generations living in one household.
BullyingRepeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person.
Conventional moral reasoningKohlberg’s second level of moral reasoning, emphasizing social rules.
LatencyFreud’s term for middle childhood, during which children’s emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet (latent). Freud thought that sexual conflicts from earlier stages are only temporarily submerged, bursting forth again at puberty.
Postconventional moral reasoningKohlberg’s third level of moral reasoning, emphasizing moral principles.
Preconventional moral reasoningKohlberg’s first level of moral reasoning, emphasizing rewards and punishments.
Withdrawn-rejectedRejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, and anxious behavior.
Single-parent familyA family that consists of only one parent and his or her biological children under age 18.
Tell time and have set times for activities, complete more homework assignments, and take care of pets.During middle childhood, children show psychosocial maturation by their ability to:
Inferior.According to Erikson, if 8-year-old Kristina does NOT solve her psychosocial conflict of stage four, she will come to view herself as:
Latency.Freud referred to middle childhood as the period of:
Value their own abilities.Ideally, social comparison helps children to:
Can have a cumulative effect on children.Daily hassles:
An easygoing temperament, high IQ, and realistic goal orientation, persistence, and learned creativity.A Hawaiian longitudinal study found that the resilience of poverty-stricken children whose parents were mentally unstable was dependent on:
Love and encouragement.According to your text, the most important overall family function is to provide:
Have two parents.According to your text, two-thirds of all U.S. families with school-aged children:
Blended.A family in which both parents have offspring from earlier relationships is called a(n) ____ family.
Whether or not the income increases stress on the family.Family income can have a positive or negative effect on the function and structure of the family, but what is important is:
Young children’s egocentrism makes them less affected by other children’s acceptance or rejection of them.The difference in the psychosocial development of young children as compared to that of middle-school children is that:
They may spout curses, accents, and slang.A characteristic of the culture of children is that:
Concrete operational.____ cognition, which gives children the ability to observe and use logic, propels them to think about morality.
98.One study found that ____ percent of a group of children believed that no child should be excluded from joining a club or team because of gender or race.
Attempt to master many skills.During Erikson’s crisis of industry versus inferiority, children:
Marisol can’t wait to begin her first karate class.Identify the typical child in Erikson’s fourth stage, the crisis of industry versus inferiority:
Latency stage.During the ____, Freud believed that children’s emotional drives and psychosocial needs are quiet.
Not universally valued nor universally criticized.According to the text, high self-esteem is:
Church.According to the text, ____ involvement particularly helps African American children in communities rife with social stress and racial prejudice.
Parents’ attitudes have a direct effect on children’s behavior.Recent research on shared and nonshared environmental factors and their influence on children’s developing temperaments has found that:
Legal and genetic relationships of family members.Family structure refers to:
Low income and high conflict.According to your text, two factors that significantly interfere with family function in every nation are:
Suffer academically and emotionally.Children who move and change neighborhoods in middle childhood:
The particular habits and styles that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society.The term “culture of children” refers to:
Demand more of their friends.As friendships change during the school years, children are most likely to:
Aggressive-rejected child.Rita, who is unpopular among her peers, frequently ridicules and antagonizes other children. Her behavior suggests that she is a(n):
Kohlberg.The theorist associated with the six stages of moral reasoning is:
The reasons for his or her answers to questions about a moral dilemma.According to Kohlberg, the crucial factor in determining what stage of moral reasoning a person is using is: