AP Human Geography

central business districtdowntown, high treshold, high range
lack of residence, lack of industry
high land costs, intensive land use, skycrappers
Europelow-rise structures, more in CBD
less industry, greenbelt
low income at the edges, hight income at the center
Concentric Zone ModelBurgess- 5 rings; grow out
Business and Wealth
Social Patterns
Commuter Zone
Sector ModelHoyt-a wedge
Transportantion and Industry=the freeway
Social Patterns
Multiple Nuclei ModelHarris+Ullman
more than one center; areas
nodes of activity-attract different types of people
EX: Education, S-E ect…
Social Area AnalysisThe distribution of characteristics and create an overall picture of where various types of people tend to live:census tracts
Uses ethnicity
Low vs. High S-EB=Outer-Ring or 2nd Ring (immigrants) + (low), Middle-Ring(high)
H=Different Sectors; near the CBD(low), the Middle(hight)
H+U=Ethnicities live near each other, near the CBD(low), Outside(high)
IndustryNot in the CBD; outside
Migration of urban to rural
Precolonial LDCsReligion=Center High Commercial-Next
Food-3rd Workers-4th
Jews, Christians, Foreigners
Shantytowns/Squatter Settlements in LDCsNot governmentally acknoledged=NO AID!!! No: pavec roads, schools, sewage system, or telephones
TOO mush population growth, not enough settlement growth. Location: On either side of the CBD
Colonial LDCsThe Spine=Wealthy
RedlininingAreas where banks draw lines on a map and refuse to loan money to people in these areas
Urban RenewalPublic Housing-Low $ 4 Rent * Low
Renovated Housing-
EX: Gentrification-middle-class families move into deteriorated inner-city housing: larger and cheaper
UnderclassCycle of Poverty= + taxes and low services
Culture of Poverty
Impact of the RecessionLoans, Morgage
Race: A-A
AnnexationThe process of legally adding land area to a city.
Central CityA city surrounded by suburbs.
City1. City: A legal entity
2. Urbanized area: A continuously built-up area
3. Metropolitan area: a functional area
Metropolitan statistial area (MSA)A method of measuring the functional area of a city:
1. Pop= 50,000 + 2. The country
3. Percentage=50% of surrounding countries at least.
Micropolitan statictical areasSmaller Urban areas:
1. Pop+ 10,00-50,00
Based Statisitcal AreasMSAs and SAs
Combined statisitcal areasclose ties to each other (CSAa and SAs).
Primiary Census Areas
The Peripheral ModelUrban and Suburb; edge cities
Density Gradient: The density change in an urban area.
SprawlThe pread of development over the landscape.
EX: Greenbelts, smart growth:preserve farmland
Residential SegregationLand uses and social classes
Zoning ordinances-mix of land use
Suburbanization of BusinessesMove to the suburbs: follow customers.
The Motor VehicleLOTS OF SPACE=Paking
The Public Transit