Chapter 8 AP Human Geography

Stateless nationsHave no national territory
Ex Palestinian Arabs
Ex Kurds
Nation statesIdeal built on homogeneity of culture
Government
Sovereignty: final authority over a territory’s political and military affairs
Ex Japan
Geographic characteristics of statesTerritory size- micro vs macro
Greater labs area= greater sources
Could also lead to problems with regulating communication and transportation
Landlocked statesLacks direct outlet to sea because it is completely surrounded by other countries
Most common in Africa
Remnant off colonial era when Britain and France confirmed so much
Built railroads to sea
Compact StatesThe distance from any point of the country to its center is about the same
Supposed to provide the most geographic stability
Examples of Compact StatesPoland, Iceland, and ZIMBABWE
Fragmented StatesConsisting of 2+ pieces
Can make some interactions within the country more difficult
Examples of Fragmented StatesPhilippines and Tanzania
Elongated StatesCan create separatist areas due to distance from center to core
Examples of Elongated StatesVietnam, Chile, Norway
Prorupt StatesAn area that extends from a compact area
Can create room for geography
Examples of Prorupt StatesSouthern Thailand
Perforated StateBroken by another country
What are the two types of Perforated States?Exclave and Enclave
Exclaveseparated from the state by another state
Examples of ExclavesAzerbaijan
EnclavesSurrounded by another state
Examples of EnclavesLesotho
Problems with BoundariesLack knowledge of underground resources when boundaries were created
Kuwait vs Iraq1990- Romaylah oil reserves.
-Created International conflict
What is a Boundary?a vertical plane that cuts through airspace and ground to determine ownership
Antarctica National ClaimsSeveral countries claim portions of it
How are Boundaries created?Defined, Delimitation, and Demarcation
Defined Boundarywritten legal definition
DelimitationMapped
DemarcationMarked with posts, walls, fences, etc.
Types of BoundariesStraight Line
Straight Line BoundaryBoundary totally matching to a line of latitude
-US/Canada
Who defined the 4 types of Boundaries?Richard Hartshorne
What are the 4 types of Boundaries?Antecedent boundary
Subsequent Boundary
Superimposed Boundary
Relic Boundary
Antecedent Boundarysome boundaries were established before are was populated
ex: Malaysia
Subsequent Boundaryboundaries which developed according to cultural landscape
ex: Vietnam/China
Superimposed Boundaryforcibly drawn boundaries across a culturally unified landscape
ex:Papua New Guinea/ Indonesia
Relic Boundaryborder that has ceased to function imprints still evident in cultural landscape
What are the 4 types of Boundary Disputes?Territorial/Definitional
Positional/Locational
Functional/Operational
Allocational Bored Dispute
Territorial/Definitionalfocus on legal language of agreement
Positional,LocationalThe interpretation of the definition is the dispute
-Saudi Arabia vs. Yemen (oil rich border not covered in treaty)
Functional/OperationalBorder Dispute
-way boundary should function ex:Border migration
Allocational Border Dispute-dispute over boundary due to location of resources
-ex: Colorado River
Systems of GovernmentUnitary and Federalism
UnitaryPower rests with central government
Works in countries with few cultural conflicts and a strong sense of national identity
ex: Nation Sates in Europe
FederalismPower is shared between the central and regional government
Advantage-suitable for large countries
Ex:US, Canada
Municipal GovernmentCity Government
Council Manager-most common type
CapitalismPeople own the means of production
SocialismGovernment owns the important industries
ex: Western Europe
Communism/MarxismGovernment owns all all means of productions
Fall of CommunismBegan in Poland (solidarity-Labor Union)
Soviet Leader Gorbachev’s plan to reform communism snowballed out of control
Reasons for the Fall of the Soviet Union1) overspending on the military
2)Problem with command economy
3)Glasnost-openness
Legacy of Cold WarWar on Terrorism
Globalization
Supranationalism
More economic and military cooperation
Devolutionthe process when regions within a state demand and gain autonomy at the expense if the state
ex: Scotland and England
Shatter Beltsstate that exists within a sphere of competition between larger states
ex: Poland is between Soviet Union and Germany in WW2
ex:Ukraine
Measuring Development-economic(GDP and types of works)
-social(education/literacy and health/welfare)
-demographic(life expectancy/infant mortality rate)
Developmentthe single most important geographic fact of development is its striking unevenness
Primaryagriculture, fishing, mining, and forestry
Secondarymanufacturing
Tertiarygoods and services to people in exchange for payment-retailing, banking, law, education, and government
Quaternaryincludes service jobs concerned with research and development, management and administration, and spreading information
What does Development reflect?Development generally reflect a North-South split in the world called a Brandt Line.
Brandt LineDevelopment is a characteristic of the rich “North” -the mid latitudes
Poverty and underdevelopment are tropical conditions
Self Sufficiency of Balanced Growth ModelCountry should spread investment as equally as possible across all sectors of its economy
Benefits-fair because residents throughout the country share the benefits of development
Disadvantages of Self Sufficiency of Balanced Growth Model1.)Sets barriers(like an import license) to protect companies
2.)Protects inefficient businesses
3.)Need for a large bureaucracy
4.)Products are more expensive
Examples of Self Sufficiency of Balanced Growth ModelMexico
India
International Trade of Economic GrowthConcentrate on expanding only in certain areas
-Rostow’s Model
Examples of International Trade of Economic GrowthSaudi Arabia
4 Dragons (South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.)
India(1990s)
5 Stages of Rostow’s Modeltraditional society, preconditions of takeoff, takeoff, drive to maturity, age of mass consumption
Traditional Societya high percentage of people are involved in farming. High percentage of national wealth allocated to “nonproductive” activities like military and religion
Preconditions of Takeoffelite group of initiates economic innovations, leads to productivity(invest in infrastructure-schools, roads, ports)
Take offrapid growth in a number of specific economic activities , technical advancement(labor forces starts to shift to factory work)
Drive to Maturitymodern technology diffuses to a wide variety of industries
The Age of Mass Consumptioneconomy shifts from heavy industry to consumer goods
What stages of Rostow’s Model are MDCs and LDCs in?MDCs- 4 or 5
LDCs- 1,2, or 3