Barron’s AP Human Geography Culture Chapter 3 (Race, Ethnicity, Gender)

Barriospanish speaking neighborhoods in US cities
ex) Spanish Harlem NYC
cultural shatterbeltpolitically unstable region where differing cultural elements come into contact, and conflict
ex) Palestine/Israel, Sudan/South Sudan
dowry deathdispute over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom- in some cases leads to murder of bride
ex) mainly occurs in India
ethnic cleansingattempt to remove all people of an ethnicity from a country/region through forced migration or genocide
ex) Jewish Holocaust, Armenian Genocide
ethnicitygroup of people who share a common identity
ex) Indian, Persian, French
plural societysociety composed of numerous ethnic groups
ex) post colonial nations (Nigeria, Iraq)
racea group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, genetic code patterns, characteristics.
ex) White, Black, Asian, Latino
segregationseparation of people because of ethnic or racial differences.
ex) separate water fountains for white and blacks 1950’s
enfranchisementadmit to citizenship, gain rite to voting
ex) immigrants passing the US citizenship test
Gendersocial differences between men and women- not biological/anatomical differences
ex) male/ female
gender gapmeasurable differences between men and women
ex) salary, opportunities
longevity gapdifference of average expected life spans between different groups of people, nations, races
ex) 78 in US, 83 in Japan, 66 India
Human Development IndexUN created indicator of level of developmentfor each country
ex) factors include income, education, literacy
subjugationact of bringing something under your control
ex) subjugation of women in sub-saharan Africa, men are payed for their work
patriarchalsociety in which men hold power over economy, family, government.
ex) India, Pakistan, Nepal
matriarchalsociety where a female is the dominant figure in household, government, economy
ex) Iceland, Akan tribe (DRC, CAR),
ethnic conflictwar between two or more ethnic groups – usually as a result of ethnic nationalism.
ex) Palestine/Israel conflict
ethnic enclavesmall area in a city/country where a particular ethnic group lives.
ex) Little Italy, New York City
ethnic groupa group that shares cultural values, considers themselves united
ex) French, Japanese
ethnocentrismbelief that one culture (most likely your own) is superior to all others
ex) Nazis view that Aryans were the superior race of people
ghettoovercrowded ethnic enclave in an urban area characterized by poverty and poor quality housing
ex) Nazi-era Jewish ghettos in European cities
ethnic neighborhoodarea within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
ex) little Italy, Chinatown
ethnic homelandarea inhabited by an ethnic minority that exhibits a strong attachment to the region, exercises political/social control
ex) Israel and Jews
ethnic landscapelandscape affected and varied by the ethnic group living there
ex) North End Boston- once historic is now home to a vibrant Italian community