AP Human Geography Chapter 6: Culture and Cultural Landscapes Vocabulary

artifactany physical object that a culture produces
barriers to diffusionthings that slow or stop the spread of an idea, innovation, people, or other things
contagious diffusionthe transmission of a phenomenon through close contact with nearby places, such as with many diseases
cultural convergencethe process by which two cultures become similar
cultural diffusionthe movement of culture traits from one place to another
cultural landscapethe cultural impacts on an area, including buildings, agricultural patterns, roads, signs, and nearly everything else that humans have created
cultureshared patterns of learned behavior, attitudes, and knowledge
culture complexa group of interrelated culture traits
culture hearthan area from which important culture traits, including ideas, technology, and social structures, originated. Ancient Mesopotamia is an example
culture realmgroupings of culture regions based on broad culture similarities. Western Europe is an example
culture regionan area defined by a large number of common culture traits

Example: New England, Midwest

culture traita single component of a culture; can be a thing, an idea, or a social convention
Examples: Language, Music, Clothing, Food, and History.
diffusionthe movement of a phenomenon from one location to another
folk cultureculture traits that are traditional, no longer widely practiced by a large number of people, and generally isolated in small, often rural areas
foodwayshow a culture prepares and consumes food
hearththe place where something begins
hierarchical diffusiona pattern where things move from one place to other places that have some similarities or are otherwise going to be more receptive, such as from a large city to smaller cities or from a boss to a subordinate
ideological subsystemthe ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge of a culture
innovation diffusionthe movement of a phenomenon from one location to another
mentifactsindividual culture traits of the ideological subsystem, such as an idea
popular culturethe aspects of a culture that are widespread, fast-changing, and transmitted by the mass media
relocation diffusionthe diffusion of a particular phenomenon over a far distance as a result of migration
reverse hierarchical diffusiondiffusion up a hierarchy, such as from a small town to large cities
social construction of spacethe idea that society shapes the spatial nature of our world
sociofacta culture trait in the sociological subsystem
sociological subsystemthe part of a culture that guides how people are expected to interact with each other and how their social institutions are structured
technological subsystemthe material objects that a culture produces, as well as the procedures for using those objects
environmental determinismThe controversial idea, popular in the early 20th century and largely discredited today, that climate or other physical qualities of an area dictate the culture of the people who live there.
Wrigley FieldHome of the Chicago Cubs; built 1914, “Wrigleyville”; Clark, Addison, and Sheffield Streets. (Northside)
United CenterHome of the Chicago Blackhawks and Bulls; built 1994; “Madhouse on Madison”.
Soldier FieldHome of the Chicago Bears; built 1924; Lake Shore Drive and Chicago Lakefront.
U.S. Cellular FieldHome of the Chicago White Sox; built 1991; 35th and Shields. (Southside)
Victorian HomePeriod: late 19th Century (1870s-1890s)
Name: Victorian
Description: Crazy rooflines, odd-shaped windows, wrap-around porches, ornamental designs on outside walls. Can be seen in Crown Point. Rarely built today and the majority have been turned into bread and breakfasts
Second Empire HomesPeriod: 1855-1875
Name: Second Empire
Description: Based on trendy styles in Europe at the time; feature the unique mansard roof
Gothic Revival/Italianate HomesPeriod: Mid-19th Century (1840s-70s)
Name: Gothic/Italianate
Description: Gingerbread houses
Italianate: Low roofs, wide eaves, and ornamental brackets, Victorian Italianate houses suggest an Italian Renaissance villa
Greek Revival HomesPeriod: Early 19th Century
Name: Greek and Roman
Description: Have columns and other touches that make them look like ancient temples
Georgian Style HomesPeriod: Colonial period
Name: Early American
Description: Generally rectangular and the homes gables are on the side of the house. The roof line runs from the sides of the home to the other side.
Prairie Style HomePeriod: Early 20th century (1920s)
Description: Frank Lloyd Wright; low-pitched roof, overhanging eaves, horizontal lines, central chimney, clerestory windows