AP Human Geography Chapter 3 – Spatial Interaction and Spatial Behavior

Activity Spacethe space within which daily activity occurs
Awareness Spaceknowledge of opportunity locations beyond normal activity space
Chain Migrationmigration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Complementaritythe actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions
Counter Migrationthe return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated
Critical Distancethe distance beyond which cost, effort, and/or means play a determining role in the willingness of the people to travel
Distance Decaythe effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
Friction of DistanceThe increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance.
Gravity ModelA mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
Intervening Opportunitythe presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away
Law of Retail Gravitationlaw that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them
Migrationthe movement of persons from one country or locality to another
Mobilityall types of movement from one location to another
Movement Biasany aggregate control on or regularity of movement of people, commodities, or communication. (Included are distance bias, direction bias, and network bias.)
NetworkA set of routes and the set of places that they connect
Personal Communication FieldAn area defined by the distribution of an individual’s short-range informal communication. The size and shape of the field are defined by work, recreation, school, and other regular contacts and are affected by age, sex, employment, and other personal characteristics.
Personal SpaceThe zone of privacy and separation from others our culture or our physical circumstances require or permit
place perception…, the awareness we have, as individuals, of home and distant places and the beliefs we hold about them
Place Utilityis the measure of an individual’s satisfaction with a given residential location
Potential Modelprovides an estimate of the interaction opportunities available to a center of a network
Pull Factorfactor such as freedom or employment opportunities that attract a person to a country
Push Factorfactor that induces people to leave old residences
Reilly’s Lawtwo cities will attract trade from intermediate locales in direct proportion to the populations of the two cities and inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the two cities to the intermediate place (law of retail gravitation)
Return Migrationthe voluntary movements of immigrants back to their place of origin. Also known as circular migration
Space-time prismthe volume of space and length of time within which our activities must be confined
Spatial Interactionthe movement of people, goods and ideas within and across geographic space
Spatial Searchthe process by which individuals evaluate the alternative locations to which they might move
Step Migrationmigration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Territorialityour sense of ownership of space that remains fixed
Transferabilitythe ease (or difficulty) in which a good may be transported from one area to another.