AP Psych Unit 13 Questions

A trained therapist who uses psychological techniques to assist someone to overcome excessive anxiety would generally be best described as a
a. psychoanalyst.
b. psychotherapist.
c. psychopharmacologist.
d. psychodynamic therapist.
e. psychostructuralist.
b. psychotherapist.
Mental health therapies that involve prescribed drugs or other procedures that act directly on a
patient’s nervous system are
a. cognitive therapies.
b. behavior therapies.
c. biomedical therapies.
d. psychodynamic therapies.
e. exposure therapies.
c. biomedical therapies.
As a therapist, Dr. Cioffi often uses systematic desensitization. She also considers active listening to be an invaluable therapeutic tool, and she frequently makes use of free association. Dr. Cioffi’s
therapeutic approach would best be described as
a. psychoanalytic.
b. client-centered.
c. behavioral.
d. eclectic.
e. meta-analytic.
d. eclectic.
Mr. Choi’s therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist’s goal best reflects a primary aim of
a. client-centered therapy.
b. cognitive therapy.
c. psychoanalysis.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. operant conditioning techniques.
c. psychoanalysis.
The first psychological therapy was introduced by
a. Joseph Wolpe.
b. Sigmund Freud.
c. Aaron Beck.
d. Carl Rogers.
e. Albert Ellis.
b. Sigmund Freud.
Which of the following therapists would most likely try to understand an adult’s psychological
disorder by exploring that person’s childhood experiences?
a. a psychoanalyst
b. a behavior therapist
c. a humanistic therapist
d. a cognitive therapist
e. a biomedical therapist
a. a psychoanalyst
Psychoanalytic techniques are designed primarily to help patients
a. focus on their immediate conscious feelings.
b. feel more trusting toward others.
c. become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses.
d. develop greater self-esteem.
e. overcome negative conditioned behaviors.
c. become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses.
Free association involves the
a. expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships.
b. therapeutic interpretation of a client’s unconscious conflicts.
c. repeated association of a relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.
d. uncensored reporting of any thoughts that come to mind.
e. replacement of a negative response to a harmless stimulus with a positive
response.
d. uncensored reporting of any thoughts that come to mind.
When Molly told her therapist about her frightening car accident, the therapist instructed her to close her eyes and verbalize any further thoughts stimulated by this experience, even if they were scary or embarrassing. The therapist was making use of a technique known as
a. active listening.
b. transference.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. free association.
e. aversive conditioning.
d. free association.
According to Freud, a patient’s hesitation to free associate is most likely a sign of
a. transference.
b. the placebo effect.
c. resistance.
d. spontaneous recovery.
e. meta-analysis.
c. resistance.
Who would be most likely to anticipate that patients are often motivated to resist specific
therapeutic instructions?
a. a humanistic therapist
b. a psychoanalyst
c. a behavior therapist
d. a cognitive therapist
e. a biomedical therapist
b. a psychoanalyst
Just as Austin began telling his therapist about a painful childhood experience, he complained of a
headache and abruptly ended the session. A psychoanalyst would most likely suggest that Austin’s behavior is an example of
a. fixation.
b. resistance.
c. transference.
d. counterconditioning.
e. tardive dyskinesia.
b. resistance.
The interpretation of dreams is most closely associated with
a. cognitive therapy.
b. virtual reality exposure therapy.
c. client-centered therapy.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. psychoanalysis.
e. psychoanalysis.
An important component of psychoanalysis is
a. active listening.
b. dream analysis.
c. spontaneous recovery.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. unconditional positive regard.
b. dream analysis.
Transference refers to a client’s
a. conversion of psychological conflicts into physical and behavioral disorders.
b. expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships.
c. replacement of self-centeredness with a genuine concern for others.
d. translation of threatening dream content into nonthreatening manifest symbols.
e. improving ability to avoid anxiety-arousing thoughts and focus on positive
cognitions.
b. expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships.
Mr. Phillips has recently begun to express feelings of hostility and resentment toward his therapist, who is consistently friendly, caring, and helpful. A psychoanalyst would most likely consider Mr. Phillips’s hostility to be an example of
a. transference.
b. fixation.
c. the placebo effect.
d. counterconditioning.
e. regression toward the mean.
a. transference.
Lynn has begun to buy small gifts for her therapist, and she feels extremely jealous of the time he spends with his other patients. To a psychoanalyst, this is most indicative of
a. unconditional positive regard.
b. the placebo effect.
c. transference.
d. therapeutic touch.
e. free association.
c. transference.
Psychoanalysts would be most likely to discourage patients from
a. experiencing strong positive or negative feelings for their therapist.
b. discontinuing psychotherapy whenever they felt it was no longer necessary.
c. talking about anxiety-arousing material during therapy.
d. taking antianxiety drugs instead of participating in psychotherapy.
e. focusing on the content and meaning of their dreams.
b. discontinuing psychotherapy whenever they felt it was no longer necessary.
In the United States, managed health care has severely limited the length of mental health services that may be covered by insurance. This is particularly likely to discourage the widespread practice of
a. virtual reality exposure therapy.
b. behavior modification.
c. cognitive therapies.
d. psychoanalysis.
e. psychopharmacology
d. psychoanalysis.
Psychodynamic therapies try to understand patients’ current symptoms by focusing on recurring patterns in their
a. interpersonal relationships.
b. conditioned behaviors.
c. eating habits and drug use.
d. self-blaming explanations.
e. childhood experiences.
a. interpersonal relationships.
A brief variation of psychodynamic therapy that has been effective in treating depression is known as
a. EMDR.
b. meta-analysis.
c. spontaneous recovery.
d. interpersonal psychotherapy.
e. exposure therapy.
d. interpersonal psychotherapy.
Which form of therapy would most likely help depressed patients by teaching them how to resolve disagreements with their friends?
a. systematic desensitization
b. interpersonal psychotherapy
c. humanistic therapy
d. cognitive therapy
e. psychoanalysis
b. interpersonal psychotherapy
Helping patients gain awareness of their unconscious conflicts and defensive behaviors is a major goal of both psychoanalysis and
a. systematic desensitization.
b. psychodynamic therapy.
c. stress inoculation training.
d. light exposure therapy.
e. humanistic therapy
b. psychodynamic therapy.
Freud is to ________ as Rogers is to ________.
a. psychoanalysis; counterconditioning
b. free association; active listening
c. dream analysis; systematic desensitization
d. active listening; empathy
e. unconditional positive regard; transference
b. free association; active listening
Humanistic therapists are most likely to
a. encourage clients to carefully observe the consequences of their maladaptive
behaviors.
b. focus special attention on clients’ positive and negative feelings toward their
therapists.
c. emphasize the importance of self-awareness for psychological adjustment.
d. use a wide variety of psychological theories and therapeutic methods.
e. help clients identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.
c. emphasize the importance of self-awareness for psychological adjustment.
Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to
a. focus more on other people’s feelings than on their own.
b. adapt more readily to social norms and expectations.
c. imitate the behavior of others who are happy and successful.
d. take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions.
e. substitute healthy rewards for unhealthy ones.
d. take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions.
During a marriage counseling session, the therapist suggests to Mr. and Mrs. Gallo that they each restate their spouse’s comments before making their own. The therapist was applying a technique most closely associated with
a. EMDR.
b. psychoanalysis.
c. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. client-centered therapy.
e. client-centered therapy.
Carl Rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ______ during the process of therapy.
a. clearly communicate their diagnosis of a client’s disorder
b. genuinely express their own true feelings
c. explain the immediate causes of a client’s difficulties
d. identify a hierarchy of the client’s anxiety-arousing experiences
e. confront patients about examples of resistance
b. genuinely express their own true feelings
As a psychotherapist, Dr. Buist does not analyze people’s motives or diagnose the nature of their
difficulties because he believes that they are in the best position to diagnose and solve their own
problems. Dr. Buist’s position is most characteristic of ________ therapy.
a. cognitive
b. psychoanalytic
c. operant conditioning
d. client-centered
e. biomedical
d. client-centered
An important feature of client-centered therapy is
a. interpretation.
b. systematic desensitization.
c. transference.
d. free association.
e. active listening.
e. active listening.
Carl Rogers referred to a caring, nonjudgmental attitude as
a. active listening.
b. free association.
c. unconditional positive regard.
d. positive reinforcement.
e. resilience.
c. unconditional positive regard.
The healing power of insight and self-awareness is LEAST likely to be emphasized by ________
therapists.
a. cognitive
b. psychoanalytic
c. behavior
d. humanistic
e. cognitive-behavioral
c. behavior
Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of
a. psychoanalysis.
b. behavior therapy.
c. humanistic therapy.
d. psychodynamic therapy.
e. cognitive therapy.
b. behavior therapy.
Cindy suggested that her nail biting might be a symptom of unconscious resentment toward her
parents. Her therapist chuckled and said, “No, Cindy, your problem isn’t unconscious hostility; your problem is nail biting.” Cindy’s therapist sounds most like a ________ therapist.
a. behavior
b. humanistic
c. cognitive
d. psychoanalytic
e. insight
a. behavior
In one treatment for bed-wetting, the child sleeps on a liquid-sensitive pad that when wet, triggers an alarm and awakens the child. This treatment is a form of
a. biomedical therapy.
b. cognitive therapy.
c. behavior therapy.
d. humanistic therapy.
e. psychodynamic therapy.
c. behavior therapy.
Two counterconditioning techniques for replacing unwanted responses include
a. systematic desensitization and free association.
b. spontaneous recovery and stress inoculation training.
c. unconditional positive regard and transference.
d. aversive conditioning and exposure therapy.
e. token economy and meta-analysis.
d. aversive conditioning and exposure therapy.
Counterconditioning techniques were derived from principles first developed by
a. Aaron Beck.
b. Ivan Pavlov.
c. Carl Rogers.
d. B. F. Skinner.
e. Sigmund Freud.
b. Ivan Pavlov.
Which of the following techniques is derived from classical conditioning principles?
a. the token economy
b. systematic desensitization
c. stress inoculation training
d. ECT
e. transference
b. systematic desensitization
In 1924, Mary Cover Jones reported that 3-year-old Peter lost his fear of rabbits when a rabbit was repeatedly presented while Peter was eating a tasty snack. This episode best illustrated the potential usefulness of
a. stress inoculation training.
b. exposure therapies.
c. aversive conditioning.
d. free association.
e. the placebo effect.
b. exposure therapies.
Systematic desensitization is a form of ________, which is a type of ________.
a. facilitated communication; interpersonal psychotherapy
b. stress inoculation training; biomedical therapy
c. free association; cognitive therapy
d. counterconditioning; behavior therapy
e. insight therapy; psychodynamic therapy
d. counterconditioning; behavior therapy
A token economy is to operant conditioning as ________ is to classical conditioning.
a. systematic desensitization
b. group therapy
c. electroconvulsive therapy
d. free association
e. drug therapy
a. systematic desensitization
Jonathan is afraid to ask a girl for a date, so his therapist instructs him to relax and simply imagine he is reaching for a telephone and then calling a potential date. The therapist’s technique best illustrates the process of
a. interpersonal therapy.
b. free association.
c. cognitive therapy.
d. aversive conditioning.
e. systematic desensitization.
e. systematic desensitization.
Relaxing one muscle group after another until one achieves a completely relaxed state of comfort is called ________ relaxation.
a. simulated
b. systematic
c. progressive
d. unconditional
e. active
c. progressive
The construction of an anxiety hierarchy and training in relaxation are important aspects of
a. biomedical therapy.
b. aversive conditioning.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. interpersonal psychotherapy.
e. stress inoculation training.
c. systematic desensitization.
Mr. Vogt is terribly fearful of being alone in his own house at night. To reduce this fear, a behavior therapist would most likely use
a. the double-blind procedure.
b. systematic desensitization.
c. a token economy.
d. aversive conditioning.
e. ECT.
b. systematic desensitization.
Gina is so fearful of taking tests for her AP courses that she experiences mild anxiety when
registering for an AP course, intense anxiety when studying for a test, and extreme anxiety when answering actual test questions. Her greatest fear, however, is experienced while waiting for a teacher to hand out tests. During the process of systematically desensitizing her test anxiety, the therapist is likely to ask Gina first to imagine
a. answering questions on a test.
b. waiting for a teacher to hand out tests.
c. studying for a test.
d. registering for an AP course.
e. receiving an A on a test.
d. registering for an AP course.
Virtual reality exposure therapy is a form of
a. stress inoculation training.
b. aversive conditioning.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. transference.
e. insight therapy.
c. systematic desensitization.
Which of the following techniques have behavior therapists used to help people overcome a fear of
flying?
a. aversive conditioning
b. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
c. virtual reality exposure therapy
d. the double-blind procedure
e. a token economy
c. virtual reality exposure therapy
In which form of therapy is unwanted behavior systematically associated with unpleasant
experiences?
a. electroconvulsive therapy
b. systematic desensitization
c. eclectic therapy
d. cognitive therapy
e. aversive conditioning
e. aversive conditioning
Aversive conditioning involves
a. replacing a negative response to a harmless stimulus with a positive response.
b. identifying a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.
c. depriving a client of access to an addictive drug.
d. associating unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.
e. systematically controlling the consequences of patients’ maladaptive behaviors.
d. associating unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.
In treating alcohol dependency, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as
a. operant conditioning.
b. systematic desensitization.
c. aversive conditioning.
d. transference.
e. free association.
c. aversive conditioning.
Whenever 2-year-old Calista runs into the street in front of her house, her mother immediately
spanks her. The mother’s technique most closely resembles the procedure known as
a. systematic desensitization.
b. electroconvulsive therapy.
c. aversive conditioning.
d. stress inoculation training.
e. transference.
c. aversive conditioning.
To help Claire quit smoking, a therapist delivers an electric shock to her arm each time she smokes a cigarette. The therapist is using
a. aversive conditioning.
b. systematic desensitization.
c. electroconvulsive therapy.
d. cognitive therapy.
e. EMDR.
a. aversive conditioning.
In a therapeutic setting, a client who wants to lose weight eats some favorite foods laced with a
nausea-producing drug. Yet, outside the therapist’s office, the client knows he or she can eat those foods without fear of nausea. This awareness contributes to the limited effectiveness of
a. spontaneous recovery.
b. aversive conditioning.
c. client-centered therapy.
d. the double-blind procedure.
e. exposure therapy.
b. aversive conditioning.
The practice of ________ is based on the application of operant conditioning principles.
a. unconditional positive regard
b. systematic desensitization
c. free association
d. behavior modification
e. psychoanalysis
d. behavior modification
Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of
a. classical conditioning.
b. light exposure therapy.
c. behavior modification.
d. progressive relaxation.
e. systematic desensitization.
c. behavior modification.
What would be most helpful for encouraging adults with intellectual disability to make their beds every morning?
a. cognitive therapy
b. aversive conditioning
c. a token economy
d. systematic desensitization
e. free association
c. a token economy
The approach that has helped children with autism learn to function successfully in school involves
a. operant conditioning.
b. systematic desensitization.
c. the double-blind procedure.
d. family therapy.
e. aversive conditioning.
a. operant conditioning.
A token economy represents an application of the principles of
a. operant conditioning.
b. systematic desensitization.
c. humanistic therapy.
d. classical conditioning.
e. observational learning.
a. operant conditioning.
Mr. Quinones, a fifth-grade teacher, gives a blue plastic star to each student who achieves a high
score on a math or spelling test. At the end of the semester, students can exchange their stars for
prizes. Mr. Quinones’ classroom strategy illustrates an application of
a. the placebo effect.
b. transference.
c. operant conditioning.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. counterconditioning.
c. operant conditioning.
Proponents of behavior modification have suggested that institutionalized patients can be weaned from ________ by shifting them to other rewards common to life outside an institution.
a. drug therapy
b. a token economy
c. the therapeutic alliance
d. a 12-step approach
e. exposure therapy
b. a token economy
“The technique reduces people to puppets controlled by therapists! It doesn’t respect human freedom.” This criticism is most likely to be directed at
a. systematic desensitization.
b. cognitive therapy.
c. EMDR.
d. psychoanalysis.
e. a token economy.
e. a token economy.
Peter is depressed because he thinks his teacher’s study suggestions mean he’s going to fail her course. Peter would profit the most from
a. psychoanalysis.
b. systematic desensitization.
c. cognitive therapy.
d. EMDR.
e. humanistic therapy
c. cognitive therapy.
Several years after his wife’s death, Mr. Stattler remains incapacitated by feelings of guilt and
sadness. To reduce Mr. Stattler’s depression, a therapist is actively encouraging him to stop blaming himself for not being able to prevent his wife’s death. The therapist’s approach is most representative of
a. systematic desensitization.
b. psychoanalysis.
c. cognitive therapy.
d. client-centered therapy.
e. behavior therapy.
c. cognitive therapy.
The psychologist known for challenging people’s absurd self-defeating ideas is
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Albert Ellis
c. Joseph Wolpe
d. Carl Rogers
e. Mary Cover Jones
b. Albert Ellis
Teaching people to stop blaming themselves for failures and negative circumstances beyond their
control is of most direct concern to ________ therapists.
a. psychoanalytic
b. cognitive
c. eclectic
d. client-centered
e. behavior
b. cognitive
Aaron Beck has used gentle questioning intended to reveal depressed clients’ irrational thinking. His therapeutic approach best illustrates
a. unconditional positive regard.
b. systematic desensitization.
c. cognitive therapy.
d. rTMS.
e. operant conditioning.
c. cognitive therapy.
Cognitive therapists are most likely to encourage depressed clients to
a. sense and express their own real moment-to-moment feelings of depression.
b. carefully observe the negative consequences of their depression.
c. take more personal responsibility for their own negative feelings and actions.
d. stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.
e. identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.
d. stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.
Although Ethan is actually doing very well in college, he feels depressed and academically
incompetent. His therapist has instructed him to explain in writing how his own hard work and
personal abilities contributed to each of the good grades he received during the previous semester. This therapeutic procedure is most characteristic of ________ therapy.
a. behavior
b. cognitive
c. psychoanalytic
d. humanistic
e. biomedical
b. cognitive
Jenna is afraid of speaking to a large audience. Her therapist suggests that prior to a speaking
engagement she should reassure herself with comments like, “Cheer up, Jenna. You know what you’re talking about and your topic is really interesting!” This approach to reducing Jenna’s fear most clearly illustrates
a. aversive conditioning.
b. client-centered therapy.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. stress inoculation training.
e. psychoanalysis.
d. stress inoculation training.
Melanie’s therapist suggests that when she feels anxious, Melanie should attribute her arousal to her highly reactive nervous system and shift her attention to playing a game with her preschool child. This suggestion best illustrates
a. systematic desensitization.
b. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
c. client-centered therapy.
d. psychodynamic therapy.
e. family therapy
b. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
In one study, people were taught to attribute their compulsive urges to abnormal brain functioning. Instead of giving in to an urge, they participated in an alternative activity that engaged other parts of the brain. This strategy for dealing with their difficulty best illustrates
a. systematic desensitization.
b. cognitive-behavior therapy.
c. EMDR.
d. psychodynamic therapy.
e. humanistic therapy.
b. cognitive-behavior therapy.
Which form of therapy is most likely to emphasize the importance of examining a person’s role within a social system?
a. systematic desensitization
b. cognitive therapy
c. psychoanalysis
d. family therapy
e. client-centered therapy
d. family therapy
Which form of psychotherapy is LEAST likely to occur in therapist-led small groups?
a. client-centered therapy
b. psychoanalysis
c. systematic desensitization
d. cognitive therapy
e. token economy
b. psychoanalysis
To help Mr. Eberstadt overcome his addiction to alcohol, his therapist first attempted to discover
whether the substance dependency was somehow a related to conflicts with his spouse. The therapist’s concern is most likely to be characteristic of a
a. psychoanalyst.
b. family therapist.
c. client-centered therapist.
d. biomedical therapist.
e. cognitive therapist.
b. family therapist.
To help Mrs. Otsuki lose weight, her therapist first attempted to assess whether her weight loss might be personally threatening to her husband. The therapist’s concern is most characteristic of a
a. eclectic therapist.
b. biomedical therapist.
c. client-centered therapist.
d. family therapist.
e. psychoanalyst.
d. family therapist.
A famous 12-step program is associated with
a. EMDR.
b. ECT.
c. rTMS.
d. AA.
e. DSM.
d. AA.
By overestimating the actual benefits of their psychotherapeutic treatment, clients are most likely attempting to satisfy their motivation for
a. a token economy.
b. free association.
c. self-justification.
d. light exposure therapy.
e. meta-analysis.
c. self-justification.
Clients’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are often misleading because clients
a. typically underestimate how much they have improved as a result of therapy.
b. tend to focus on their behavioral changes rather than on changes in their attitudes
and emotions.
c. often need to convince themselves that they didn’t waste their money on therapy.
d. are often angry about the time-consuming nature of therapy.
e. usually experience delusions about the true nature of their therapists and therapy.
c. often need to convince themselves that they didn’t waste their money on therapy.
Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists
a. typically take an eclectic approach to therapy.
b. prefer client-centered therapy over other forms of treatment.
c. interpret patients’ transference early in the course of therapy.
d. tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
e. believe that biomedical therapies are more effective in the long run.
d. tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
The placebo effect refers to
a. relief from symptoms without psychotherapy.
b. the alleviation of depression and anxiety by means of aerobic exercise.
c. the use of drugs in the therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders.
d. the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
e. the use of a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic methods.
d. the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
Students who receive unusually low scores on their first psychology test can reasonably anticipate ________ scores on their second psychology test.
a. even lower
b. equally low
c. the same
d. somewhat higher
e. very high
d. somewhat higher
Although Shawn felt terribly depressed when he began psychotherapy, he was much happier by the time he had completed therapy. It would be reasonable to attribute some of his improvement to
a. systematic desensitization.
b. therapeutic touch.
c. the double-blind procedure.
d. transference.
e. regression toward the mean
e. regression toward the mean
Which phenomenon refers to the tendency for extraordinary or unusual events to be followed by more ordinary events?
a. the placebo effect
b. systematic desensitization
c. regression toward the mean
d. progressive relaxation
e. meta-analysis
c. regression toward the mean
Although Soren once scored 37 points during a single high school basketball game, he was
subsequently unable to beat or match this record no matter how hard he tried. His experience may be at least partially explained in terms of
a. the placebo effect.
b. regression toward the mean.
c. spontaneous recovery.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. stress inoculation training.
b. regression toward the mean.
The best outcome studies for evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy typically use
a. virtual reality.
b. token economies.
c. randomized clinical trials.
d. rTMS.
e. ECT
c. randomized clinical trials.
Meta-analysis refers to
a. a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
b. the use of a variety of therapeutic techniques in the treatment of a single client.
c. counseling and treatment of troubled individuals by friends, family, and other
nonprofessionals.
d. a procedure for identifying the common factors that underlie many different
disorders.
e. the technique of simply rephrasing much of what a client says during the course of
therapy.
a. a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
After performing a meta-analysis of some 475 psychotherapy outcome studies, Smith and her
colleagues reported in 1980 that
a. evidence supports the efficacy of psychotherapy.
b. psychotherapy is no more effective than talking to a friend.
c. psychotherapy harms just as many people as it helps.
d. it is impossible to measure the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
e. in the long run, psychotherapy is more beneficial than behavior therapy.
a. evidence supports the efficacy of psychotherapy.
The most convincing evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapy comes from
a. studies of client satisfaction with the treatment received.
b. reports from therapists concerning their perceptions of client improvement.
c. meta-analyses of psychotherapeutic outcome studies.
d. the reactions of family and friends to those who have recently undergone
psychotherapeutic treatment.
e. case-study evidence from Freud and other prominent psychotherapists.
c. meta-analyses of psychotherapeutic outcome studies.
Because Gretchen is afraid of contracting infectious diseases, she compulsively avoids shaking people’s hands or touching doorknobs. Research suggests that an especially effective treatment for her difficulty would involve
a. client-centered therapy.
b. psychodynamic therapy.
c. cognitive therapy.
d. behavior therapy.
e. psychoanalysis.
d. behavior therapy.
Research has shown that clients’ level of satisfaction with psychotherapy
a. is unrelated to the level of training and experience of their therapists.
b. depends on whether they received individual treatment or group therapy.
c. depends on whether they were treated by a cognitive therapist or a behavior
therapist.
d. depends on whether they were treated by a psychiatrist, psychologist, or social
worker.
e. is related to the level of training and experience of their therapists.
A
Cognitive therapies have achieved especially favorable results in the treatment of
a. phobias.
b. depression.
c. compulsions.
d. bed-wetting.
e. schizophrenia.
B
Which of the following scientifically unsupported treatment approaches should be avoided?
a. stress inoculation training
b. virtual reality exposure therapy
c. facilitated communication
d. aversive conditioning
e. token economy
C
Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and an
understanding of patient characteristics best illustrates
a. EMDR.
b. meta-analysis.
c. crisis debriefing.
d. evidence-based practice.
e. client-centered therapy.
D
EMDR is most similar to a technique known as
a. stress inoculation training.
b. aversive conditioning.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. electroconvulsive therapy.
e. family therapy.
C
Kammy vividly imagines being abused by her own mother while her therapist triggers eye
movements by waving a finger in front of Kammy’s eyes. The therapist is apparently using a technique known as
a. EMDR.
b. transference.
c. meta-analysis.
d. virtual reality exposure therapy.
e. systematic desensitization.
A
EMDR was originally developed for the treatment of
a. alcohol dependence.
b. bulimia.
c. depression.
d. anxiety.
e. schizophrenia.
D
Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of
a. insomnia.
b. anxiety.
c. bulimia.
d. depression.
e. alcoholism.
D
Light exposure therapy sparks activity in a brain region that influences
a. the body’s arousal.
b. tardive dyskinesia.
c. animal magnetism.
d. facilitated communication.
e. meta-analysis.
A
A common ingredient underlying the success of diverse psychotherapies is the
a. professional training and experience of the therapist.
b. escape from real-life pressures offered by psychotherapy.
c. length of time the client spends in psychotherapy.
d. client’s expectation that psychotherapy will make things better.
e. use of an eclectic approach to therapy.
D
Mr. Gotanda mistakenly believed that a single intake interview in which he simply described his numerous symptoms to a therapist was a treatment for his distress. His immediate relief from many of his symptoms following this session best illustrates
a. systematic desensitization.
b. unconditional positive regard.
c. transference.
d. the placebo effect.
e. counterconditioning.
D
The psychotherapeutic value of hope is best illustrated by
a. meta-analysis.
b. the placebo effect.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. transference.
e. active listening
B
Which of the following is most clearly a key contributor to the formation of the therapeutic alliance?
a. progressive relaxation
b. an eclectic approach
c. patient transference
d. an empathic therapist
e. free association
D
Researchers have found that matching Asian-American clients with counselors who share their
cultural values facilitates
a. the therapeutic alliance.
b. an eclectic approach.
c. progressive relaxation.
d. neurogenesis.
e. patient transference
A
In one experiment, Asian-American clients were more likely to perceive counselor empathy if their counselor
a. encouraged free association.
b. used an eclectic approach.
c. shared the clients’ cultural values.
d. practiced systematic desensitization.
e. correctly identified points of resistance.
C
Many professionals outside the field of psychology are prepared to offer psychotherapy in the process of completing a graduate program in
a. law.
b. anthropology.
c. social work.
d. philosophy.
e. psychopharmacology.
C
Which therapeutic specialists are most likely to have received a Ph.D. degree in psychology?
a. clinical psychologists
b. psychopharmacologists
c. psychiatrists
d. pastoral counselors
e. family therapists
A
A physician who specializes in the treatment of psychological disorders is called a
a. psychoanalyst.
b. clinical psychologist.
c. behavioral neuroscientist.
d. cognitive therapist.
e. psychiatrist.
E
Dr. Judd is convinced that psychological disorders result largely from stressful social situations rather than from disturbances within the individual personality. Dr. Judd’s belief is most consistent with the assumptions that underlie
a. psychoanalysis.
b. cognitive therapy.
c. psychosurgery.
d. drug therapy.
e. preventive mental health.
E
Which approach would attempt to minimize psychological disorders by working to reduce the
incidence of child abuse and illiteracy in society?
a. biomedical therapy
b. counterconditioning
c. psychoanalysis
d. preventive mental health
e. token economy
D
Bolstering parents’ and teachers’ skills at nurturing children’s achievement and resulting self-esteem best illustrates
a. virtual reality exposure therapy.
b. meta-analysis.
c. counterconditioning.
d. preventive mental health.
e. insight therapy.
D
Psychopharmacology involves the study of how:
a. diseases influence psychological well-being.
b. exercise alleviates depression.
c. drugs affect mind and behavior.
d. physical relaxation reduces anxiety.
e. psychosurgery and ECT influence emotions.
C
Dr. Genscher believes that most psychological disorders result from chemical abnormalities. In her work as a therapist, Dr. Genscher is most likely to make use of
a. psychosurgery.
b. meta-analysis.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. drug therapies.
e. transference.
D
The double-blind procedure involves
a. the avoidance of eye contact between patient and therapist during free association.
b. a procedure in which neither patients nor health care staff know whether a given
patient is receiving a drug or a placebo.
c. blocking anxiety-arousing material from consciousness during therapy.
d. the simultaneous use of two or more therapeutic treatments in the hope that at
least one will be effective.
e. replacing a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative response.
B
Dr. Volz is a researcher who wants to distinguish between the direct effects of a new antianxiety
medication and effects arising from expectations of the drug’s effectiveness. Dr. Volz is most likely to use
a. the double-blind procedure.
b. meta-analysis.
c. EMDR.
d. virtual reality exposure therapy.
e. systematic desensitization.
A
Which drug has provided the most help to schizophrenia patients experiencing auditory
hallucinations and paranoia?
a. lithium
b. Xanax
c. Thorazine
d. Prozac
e. Ativan
C
Which drug dampens responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli in schizophrenia patients with positive symptoms?
a. lithium
b. D-cycloserine
c. chlorpromazine
d. clozapine
e. Xanax
C
Melissa suffers from auditory hallucinations and falsely believes that her former high school teachers are trying to kill her. Melissa’s symptoms are most likely to be relieved by ________ drugs.
a. antidepressant
b. antianxiety
c. mood-stabilizing
d. antipsychotic
e. transcranial
D
Of the following individuals, who is most likely to benefit from therapeutic drugs that block receptor sites for dopamine?
a. Amir, who complains about feeling tense and fearful most of the time but doesn’t
know why
b. Matthew, who feels hopeless and lethargic after losing his job
c. Betsy, who hears imaginary voices telling her she will soon be killed
d. Marcella, who is so obsessed with fear of a heart attack that she frequently counts
her heartbeats aloud
e. John Carl, who feels he has to wash his hands three times every hour
C
Tardive dyskinesia is often associated with long-term use of drugs that occupy certain ________ receptor sites.
a. serotonin
b. norepinephrine
c. acetylcholine
d. dopamine
e. endocrine
D
Long-term use of certain antipsychotic drugs can produce involuntary movements of the facial
muscles, tongue, and limbs. This menacing condition is known as
a. serotonin reuptake inhibition.
b. tardive dyskinesia.
c. Parkinson’s disease.
d. neurogenesis.
e. waxy flexibility.
B
Xanax and Ativan are ________ drugs.
a. antidepressant
b. antipsychotic
c. mood-stabilizing
d. antianxiety
e. psychodynamic
D
D-cycloserine helps relieve the symptoms of
a. schizophrenia.
b. bipolar disorder.
c. antisocial personality.
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
e. major depressive disorder.
D
Which drug enhances the benefits of exposure therapy and helps relieve the symptoms of PTSD and OCD?
a. Clozaril
b. Depakote
c. Thorazine
d. D-cycloserine
e. Paxil
D
Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms following the discontinued use of an antianxiety drug are
indicative of
a. rTMS.
b. neurogenesis.
c. tardive dyskinesia.
d. physiological dependence.
e. ECT.
D
Antidepressant drugs are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of
a. auditory hallucinations.
b. tardive dyskinesia.
c. anxiety disorders.
d. antisocial personality disorder.
e. delusions.
C
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are called
a. antipsychotic drugs.
b. mood-stabilizing drugs.
c. antianxiety drugs.
d. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
e. lithium derivatives.
D
Prozac is an antidepressant drug that partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of ________ from synapses.
a. serotonin
b. dopamine
c. acetylcholine
d. chlorpromazine
e. thorazine
A
Which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from Prozac?
a. Jack, who has lost his sense of identity and wandered from his home to a distant
city
b. Andrea, who hears imaginary voices telling her that she will suffer a fatal accident
c. Tami, who is so addicted to cigarettes that she doesn’t want to quit smoking
d. Shannon, who feels helpless and apathetic and thinks her life is meaningless and
worthless
e. Marco, who experiences periods of mania and hallucinations
D
Dual-action antidepressant drugs work by increasing the availability of
a. dopamine and acetylcholine.
b. serotonin and dopamine.
c. acetylcholine and norepinephrine.
d. norepinephrine and serotonin.
e. thorazine and dopamine.
D
One good alternative to antidepressant drugs is
a. aerobic exercise.
b. psychosurgery.
c. virtual reality exposure therapy.
d. EMDR.
e. DSM.
A
A natural return to a state of psychological health following an extended period of depression illustrates
a. neurogenesis.
b. counterconditioning.
c. spontaneous recovery.
d. tardive dyskinesia.
e. transference.
C
Lithium has been found to be especially effective in the treatment of
a. anxiety disorders.
b. schizophrenia.
c. dissociative disorders.
d. bipolar disorder.
e. personality disorders.
D
Edith, a 45-year-old journalist, alternates between extreme sadness and lethargy and extreme euphoria and overactivity. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to her is
a. lithium.
b. Xanax.
c. Clozaril.
d. Thorazine.
e. Paxil.
A
Depakote, a drug originally used to treat epilepsy, more recently has been found to be effective in the control of
a. tardive dyskinesia.
b. auditory hallucinations.
c. manic episodes.
d. phobias.
e. personality disorders.
C
Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of
a. phobias.
b. dissociative disorders.
c. schizophrenia.
d. depression.
e. mania.
D
Adelle’s feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery?
a. electroconvulsive therapy
b. drug therapy
c. psychoanalysis
d. systematic desensitization
e. cognitive therapy
A
Which of the following biomedical treatments provides some of the benefits of ECT without
triggering seizures or memory loss?
a. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
b. repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
c. systematic desensitization
d. psychosurgery
e. virtual reality exposure therapy
B
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation shows greatest promise for the treatment of
a. schizophrenia.
b. depression.
c. alcohol dependency.
d. phobias.
e. bulimia.
B
Deep-brain stimulation involves the implantation of ________ into the cortex.
a. DNA
b. lithium
c. electrodes
d. stem cells
e. rTMS
C
Using implanted electrodes to inhibit activity in an area of the cortex that triggers negative emotions is called
a. EMDR.
b. deep-brain stimulation.
c. electroconvulsive therapy.
d. repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
e. rTMS.
B
Which of the following procedures has typically resulted in patients becoming permanently
lethargic?
a. EMDR
b. electroconvulsive therapy
c. a lobotomy
d. repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
e. rTMS
C
Surgically cutting the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain is called
a. psychopharmacology.
b. neurogenesis.
c. rTMS.
d. a lobotomy.
e. ECT.
D
Though not performed today, lobotomies provide a historical example of
a. psychosurgery.
b. aversive conditioning.
c. electroconvulsive therapy.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. psychopharmacology.
A
Treating the mind and body as independent entities seems especially inappropriate to those who take a ________ approach to therapy.
a. biopsychosocial
b. classical conditioning
c. psychoanalytic
d. client-centered
e. cognitive-behavioral
A
Lyle Bensfield emphasizes that recovery from bipolar disorder involves a continuous interplay
among patients’ physical reactions to mood-stabilizing drugs, their positive expectations that their lives will improve, and the supportive responses of patients’ families and friends. Mr. Bensfield’s emphasis best illustrates a(n) ________ approach to therapy.
a. psychodynamic
b. client-centered
c. biopsychosocial
d. operant conditioning
e. cognitive-behavioral
C
In promoting therapeutic life-style change, Stephen Ilardi and his colleagues note that human brains and bodies were designed for physical activity and
a. token economy.
b. free association.
c. social engagement.
d. unconditional positive regard.
e. systematic desensitization.
C