AP Human Geography Unit 1 Vocabulary

AccessibilityDefinition: The ability to reach a place with respect to another place.
Example: I prefer to go to the suburban mall because it has much better accessibility than the downtown mall.
All information found at: http://geography.about.com/od/geographyglossarya/g/ggaccessibility.htm
AgglomeratedDefinition: An extended town area consisting of the built-up area of a central place and any suburbs linked by continuous urban area.
Example: The “Denver Metro Area” is an agglomeration of Denver and its surrounding suburban towns.
All information found at: http://www.flashcardmachine.com/ap-human-geographyservicesvocabulary.html
Built LandscapeDefinition: Represented by those features and patterns reflecting human occupation and use of natural resources.
Information found at: http://www.flashcardmachine.com/ap-human-geographyvocabmaps.html
Example: North Hills mall would be an example of a built landscape.
ConnectivityDefinition: A topological property relating to how geographical features are attached to one another functionally, spatially, or logically.
Example: In an water distribution system, connectivity would refer to the way pipes, valves, and reservoirs are attached, implying that water could be “traced” from its source in the network, from connection to connection, to any given final point. Functional, spatial, and logical connectivity are examples of relationships that can be represented and analyzed in a GIS database.
All information found at: http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/gloss/glossary.html
Contagious DiffusionDefinition: Contagious diffusion is the rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population.
Information found at: http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=10
Example: Hinduism started in Northern India and spread through the entire Indian subcontinent absorbing other beliefs and practices as it spread. Hindu Missionaries carried the faith oversees.
Information found at:
https://quizlet.com/1241762/diffusion-examples-flash-cards/
Cultural ecologyDefinition: He study of human adaptations to social and physical environments.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_ecology
Example: Mangroves influence the lifestyles of many southeast Asian communities. Mangroves provide unique housing material for people, support fish populations (and fishing), promote ecotourism, and help to lessen the impact of flooding for the coastal communities… but there are also challenges for people living in mangrove ecosystems (salty water, flooding, removal of mangroves, the smell of mangroves, etc.). A cultural ecologist would study how people living near mangroves are affected by these ecosystems, and how they use and change them.
Information found at:
https://www.quora.com/What-is-cultural-ecology-and-what-is-an-example
Culture LandscapeDefinition: A geographic area,including both cultural and natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals therein, associated with a historic event, activity, or person or exhibiting other cultural or aesthetic values.
Information found at:
https://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/briefs/36-cultural-landscapes.htm
Example: One of the most dramatic examples of a cultural landscape within State Parks is found at Bodie State Historic Park. The wide range of historic properties located within its boundaries portray western mining history of the late 1800s and early 1900s. At the core of the landscape is the town site itself, now only a relatively small collection of vernacular buildings and structures preserved in a state of “arrested decay.” But the town tells only a part of the story. It is in the surrounding high-desert terrain where we find the physical remains of nearly 100 years of mining extraction and processing and processing activities- mineshafts, road traces, mill sites, tunnels, tailings ponds and artifact scattered.
Information found at:
https://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=22500
CultureDefinition: The arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively.
Information found at:
Google searched definition
Example: African-Americans, Asian-Americans, Pacific Islanders, Native Americans and Hispanic and Latino Americans
Information found at:
https://www.reference.com/world-view/examples-cultural-practices-73e2678d109dae01
Culture ComplexDefinition: A group of culture traits all interrelated and dominated by one essential trait.
Example: Nationalism is a culture complex.
All information found at: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/culture-complex
Culture TraitDefinition: Any trait of human activity acquired in social life and transmitted by communication.
Information found at:
https://www.reference.com/world-view/examples-culture-traits-aff6d6b374061d5d
Example: There are seven primary culture traits: learned behaviors, transmission of information, symbolism, flexibility, integration, ethnocentrism and adaptation.
Information found at: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/culture-trait
DirectionAbsolute Definition: Based on north, south, east, west
Relative Definition: culturally based and locationally variable. ex) “out west”, “back east”, “near east”
Information found at:
http://www.flashcardmachine.com/human-geography7.html
Example: Maps can show different directions for different places on the earth.
DistanceAbsolute Definition: The total space between two things or places, usually measured in feet, yards, miles or even city blocks.
Relative Definition: In geography, when measured in a standard unit of length, this is referred to as absolute distance.
Information found at: http://study.com/academy/lesson/relative-distance-definition-lesson-quiz.html
Example: You can find the distance from my state to a different state using a map or a different contemporary tool.
Distance DecayDefinition: Describes the effect of distance on cultural or spatial interactions. The distance decay effect states that the interaction between two locales declines as the distance between them increases.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distance_decay
Example: A good example of distance decay is rent.
Information found at:
https://www.quora.com/Whats-an-example-of-distance-decay
DistributionDefinition: The natural arrangement and apportionment of the various forms of animals and plants in the different regions and localities of the earth.
Information found at:
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/geographical%20distribution
Example: Lions are only found in Africa and the closely related tigers are distributed in Asia.
Information: found at: https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090518144443AADeZpz
EndemicDefinition: A disease that occurs regularly in a particular area.
Example: Malaria occurs regularly in many tropical countries, is said to be endemic.
All information found at: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/endemic
Environmental DeterminismDefinition: The study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories.
Information found at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_determinism
Example: Environmental determinism would go with the latter when faced with this scenario. The reason is that environmental determinism, also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism, is the belief that a physical environment affects social and cultural development.
Information found at: http://study.com/academy/lesson/environmental-determinism-definition-examples-theory.html
EpidemicDefinition: A widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
Information found at: Google Search
Example: The Black Plague
Expansion DiffusionDefinition: Idea or innovation spreads outward from the hearth.
Information found at:
http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=10
Formal/Uniform RegionsDefinition: An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics.
Information found at: https://apmodels.wikispaces.com/Introduction+To+Geography
Friction of DistanceDefinition: The concept of friction of distance is based on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort (energy) and/or money to overcome.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friction_of_distance
Functional/Nodal RegionsDefinition: An area organized around a node, or focal point, and is defined by interactions or connections.
Information found at: https://www.reference.com/world-view/example-nodal-region-537b7170aa3f31fb
GlobalizationDefinition: A process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.
Information found at: http://www.globalization101.org/what-is-globalization/
Hearth (culture, language, religion, ag, etc)Definition: any place where certain related changes in land-use appeared due to human domestication of plants and animals.
Information found at: https://myweb.rollins.edu/jsiry/cultheart.html
Hierarchical DiffusionDefinition: The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or place.
Information found at:
http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=10
Independent InventionDefinition: A trait with many hearths that developed independent of each other.
Information found at:
https://quizlet.com/13159513/ap-human-geography-flash-cards/
Location (Absolute, Relative)Absolute Definition: A place’s exact spot on a map.
Relative Definition: An estimate of where a place is in relation to other landmarks.
Information found at: https://www.reference.com/science/difference-between-absolute-relative-location-2a04a36dcfe816bf
Location TheoryDefinition: Addresses questions of what economic activities are located where and why.
Information found at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Location_theory
PandemicDefinition: An epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
Information found at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandemic
Perceptual/Vernacular RegionsDefinition: An area defined by subjective perceptions that reflect the feelings & images about key place characteristics. When these perceptions come from the local, ordinary folk, a perceptual region can be called a vernacular region.”
Information found at: https://quizlet.com/13503230/human-geography-flash-cards/
Political EcologyDefinition: The study of the relationships between political, economic and social factors with environmental issues and changes.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_ecology
PossibilismDefinition: The theory that the environment sets certain constraints or limitations, but culture is otherwise determined by social conditions.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Possibilism_(geography)
Relocation DiffusionDefinition: The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another.
Information found at: http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=10
ScaleDefinition: The ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scale_(map)
Sequent OccupanceDefinition: Notion that successful societies leave their cultural imprints on a place each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
Information found at: https://quizlet.com/2910068/ap-human-geography-culture-flash-cards/
SiteDefinition: The land upon which something is built.
Information found at: http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/topics/siteandsituation.html
SituationDefinition: The location of something in relation to surrounding human and physical features.
Information found at: http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/topics/siteandsituation.html
SpatialDefinition: It estimate the flow of people, material, or information between locations in geographic space.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spatial_analysis
Stimulus DiffusionDefinition: The spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. Also, an idea or innovation sparked by an idea that diffused in from another culture.
Information found at: http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=10
Time-Distance DecayDefinition: Describes the effect of distance on cultural or spatial interactions.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distance_decay
Time-Space CompressionDefinition: Any phenomenon that alters the qualities of and relationship between space and time.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time-space_compression
Geographic Information System (GIS)Definition: A system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of spatial or geographical data.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_information_system
Global Positioning System (GPS)Definition: A global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.
Information found at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System
Remote SensingDefinition: The art and science of making measurements of the earth using sensors on airplanes or satellites.
Information found at:
https://kb.iu.edu/d/anhs
Thematic MapsDefinition: A type of map especially designed to show a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area. Information found at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thematic_map
Statistical MapsDefinition: A special type of map in which the variation in quantity of a factor such as rainfall, population, or crops in a geographic area is indicated; such as a dot map
Information found at: https://quizlet.com/1134773/ap-human-geography-01-geographic-tools-flash-cards/
CartogramDefinition: A map that has been simplified to present a single idea ina diagrammatic way: the base is not normally true to scale.
Information found at: https://quizlet.com/1134773/ap-human-geography-01-geographic-tools-flash-cards/
Dot MapsDefinition: A thematic map in which a dot represents some frequency of the mapped variable.
Information found at: https://quizlet.com/1134773/ap-human-geography-01-geographic-tools-flash-cards/
Choropleth MapsDefinition: A thematic map in which ranked classes of some variable are depicted with shading patterns or colors for predefined zones.
Information found at: https://quizlet.com/1134773/ap-human-geography-01-geographic-tools-flash-cards/
Isoline MapsDefinition: A thematic map with lines that connect points of equal value.
Information found at: https://quizlet.com/1134773/ap-human-geography-01-geographic-tools-flash-cards/
Mental MapsDefinition: An internal representation of a portion of Earth’s surface; depicting what an individual knows about a place — containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where a place is located.
Information found at: https://quizlet.com/1134773/ap-human-geography-01-geographic-tools-flash-cards/
DistortionDefinition: On a map or image, the misrepresentation of shape, area, distance, or direction of or between geographic features when compared to their true measurements on the curved surface of the earth.
Information found at:
http://support.esri.com/other-resources/gis-dictionary/term/distortion
Robinson ProjectionsDefinition: A map projection of a world map which shows the entire world at once.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_projection
Mercator ProjectionsDefinition: A cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569.
Information found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercator_projection
Azimuthal ProjectionDefinition: A map projection in which a region of the earth is projected onto a plane tangential to the surface, typically at a pole or the equator.
Information found at: Google Search
Polar ProjectionDefinition: An azimuthal projection drawn to show Arctic and Antarctic areas. It is based on a plane perpendicular to the Earth’s axis in contact with the North or South Pole. It is limited to 10 or 15 degrees from the poles.
Information found at: https://www.britannica.com/science/polar-projection