AP Human Geography Chapter 4

CultureLearned, complex, belief system, norms and values practiced by a people. People identify themselves or others as a unique culture.
AssimilationThe process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities when they come into contact with another society or culture.
Distance DecayThe effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater distance the less interaction.
Time-space CompressionThe declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.
Cultural LandscapeThe visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of human occupants.
HearthThe area where an idea or cultural trait originates
Folk CultureTraditionally practiced by a small homogeneous, typically rural and cohesive(united) in cultural traits. EXAMPLE: The Amish people because they define themselves as group and they live in small communities
Popular CultureFound in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in personal characteristics. EXAMPLE: It could be like the style of clothing most people wear like Uggs or Nike shoes.
Local CultureA group of people in a particular place who see themselves as as a collective or community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others
Material CultureThe material culture of a group of people includes things they construct EXAMPLE: Houses, clothing, art, sports, dance, and foods.
Nonmaterial CultureThings that are important to a culture that are not touchable EXAMPLE: Beliefs, practices, aesthetics/beauty, humble, hardworkers, and values
CustomA practice that a group of people routinely follow. EXAMPLE: Having pizza every Friday or going to church every Sunday
Cultural AppropriationThe process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own benefit. EXAMPLE: Sports teams using Native American names or images as their mascots or Ottoman and Egyptian architectural traditions have long been falsely claimed and praised as Persian or Arab
NeocalismThe seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigorating it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world. EXAMPLE: During festivals, townspeople, Swedish or not, dress up in the peasant clothes that Swedish immigrants wore in the 1800’s.
Ethnic NeighborhoodA neighborhood typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture in which a local culture can practice their customs. EXAMPLE: Hasidic Jews in Brooklyn, New York, and Italian Americans in the North end of Boston, Massachusetts.
CommodificationThe process through which something is given monetary value. Commodification occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy. EXAMPLE: Jewelry, clothing, language, and beliefs. A waffle half eaten by Barrack Obama.
ReterritoriallizationWith respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own. EXAMPLE: Hip Hop spreading from the U.S. to France, Germany, Italy, and Europe because of writers writing music that connects with the youth of their country. (About racism, crime, violence)
PlacelessnessDefined by geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the rest. EXAMPLE: Driving down the road seeing Applebees, Walmart, Target, or McDonalds and them several miles down the road you pass another clustering of the same stores.
Global-Local ContinuumThe notion that what happens at a global scale has a direct effect on what happens on the local scale, and vice versa. This idea posits that the world is comprised of an interconnected series of relationships that extend across space. EXAMPLE Global-Local tensions underlying unrest in Iraq The global scale was the basis for the initial case made by the US for going to war with Iraq in 2003Iraq was said to possess weapons of mass destruction that could fall into the hands of terrorists.
Strong regional-scale divisions emerged in Iraq after the US and allied countries invaded Iraq and deposed Iraqi President, Saddam Hussein.
GlocalizationThe process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes. EXAMPLE: Yahoo! is an example of a company that practices glocalization. It markets a portal that is viewed worldwide and offers different versions of its website (and related services) for different users. It provides content and language variations in some 25 countries and customizes content to appeal to individuals in those locations.
Folk-housing RegionsA region in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area.