ATH Exam 3 Quizzes

The human condition is distinguished from the condition of other living species byculture
Culture is:Learned
Those parts of culture that are absorbed in the course of daily practical learning are calledHabitus
something that stands for something else is a:symbol
Complex, variable, and enduring forms of cultural practice that organize social life are calledInstitutions
The exercise of at least some control over their lives by human beings is calledHuman agency
The perspective on the human condition that assumes that mind and body, individuals and society, and individuals and the environment interpenetrate and even define one another is calledHolism
Clifford Geertz, as quoted in the text, observes that human beings raised in isolation would beMental basket cases
The opinion that one’s own way of life is natural or correct and the only true way of being fully human is calledEthnocentrism
Cultural relativism:Requires us to take many things into account before we form opinions about other cultural practices
African women who are trying to eliminate female genital cutting from their own societies are often not happy when American outsiders like Mary Daly and Alice Walker denounce the practice as a human rights abuse. Why?~When outsiders publicly condemn traditional rituals like clitoridectomy and infibulation, they may do more harm than good.

~Outsiders’ condemnations of female genital cutting sound too much like the ethnocentric, reductionist critiques of “barbaric” African customs that Europeans once used to justify colonial conquest.
~Western women who want to help eliminate female genital cutting are likely to be more effective if they pay close attention to what African women who are directly affected by the practice have to say about its meaning in their lives.

To argue that “their culture made them do it” is to take the position ofCultural determinism
The anthropological definition of cultural relativism requires that we make an effort to __________ the practices of other culturesUnderstand
According to anthropologist Eric Luke Lassiter, does the fact that Kiowas are Christians today show that federal officials and missionaries succeeded in their policies of Western cultural imperialism?~None of these~
Yes, because the U.S. government put an end to the Kiowa sun dance, the centerpiece of Kiowa ceremonies.
Yes, because missionaries arrived as the buffalo were disappearing and Kiowa people were being confined to reservations.
Yes, because the Christianizing of the Kiowa is the story of how one set of beliefs replaced another one wholesale.
Perhaps the most profound lesson we can learn from the Kiowa experience of Christianity isThat the way in which Kiowa Christians have been able to transform what began as an exercise in cultural imperialism into a reaffirmation of traditional Kiowa values challenges the presumption that “authentic cultures” never change
The system of arbitrary symbols used to encode one’s experience of the world and of others islanguage
What is the difference between speech and languagespeech is spoken language
Members of a speech communityDo not all possess identical knowledge about the language they share
The design feature of language called “openness” refers to theAbility to create new linguistic messages freely and easily
There is nothing inherent in the nature of a large quadruped well-suited for long-distance running that requires us to call this creature a “horse.” This illustrates the linguistic design feature ofArbitrariness
The set of rules that aim to describe fully the patterns of linguistic usage observed by members of a particular speech community is calledgrammar
The ability of native speakers of a language to use words in ways that are socially and culturally appropriate is calledcommunicative competence
In Java it is impossible tosay anything without communicating your relative social position
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf believed thatLanguage has the power to shape the way people see the world
Linguistic determinism holds thatThe grammars of people’s native languages determine how they think about the world
People who grow up bilingualCan switch readily from one language to the other
A stretch of speech longer than a sentence united by a common theme is adiscourse
David is a college student who knows the different linguistic habits appropriate to his mother and stepfather’s home, his father’s home, his university residence hall, his anthropology class, his job at an elegant restaurant, and his religious tradition. The term used in the text to describe his complex linguistic knowledge isHeteroglossia
A language with no native speakers that develops in a single generation between members of communities that possess distinct native languages is aPidgin
According to William Labov’s work in the 1960s, African American children living in urban areas did not perform well linguistically in the classroom because theyFelt threatened in the classroom context
Some scholars have proposed that play is connected withDeveloping cognitive and motor skills involving the brain
Metacommunication refers toCommunication about communication
In an example discussed in the text, Elizabeth Chin claims that when African American girls in New Haven, Connecticut give their white dolls hairstyles like their own, they areReconfiguring the boundaries of race.
Artists in non-Western societiesWork with symbols that are of central importance to their societies
The term anthropologists use for stories that recount how various aspects of the world came to be the way they are ismyths
When myths and related beliefs that are taken to be self-evident truths are highly codified and deviation from the code is considered a serious matter, we may call thisOrthodoxy
The anthropologist who argued that myths serve as “charters” or “justifications” for present-day social arrangements wasBronislaw Malinowski
The anthropologist who argued that myths are tools for overcoming logical contradictions that cannot otherwise be overcome wasClaude Lévi-Strauss
Which of the following does NOT reflect the anthropological understanding of ritual?Rituals are exclusively religious in nature.
What are the three stages of rites of passage?Separation, transition, reaggregation
The ambiguous transitional state in a rite of passage in which the person or persons undergoing the ritual are outside their ordinary social positions is calledLiminality
Play communicates about _____; ritual communicates about _____.What can be / what ought to be
In some religious systems, certain objects or people may not be touched, or else the cosmic power in them may drain away. This feature is captured in the minimal category of religion calledTaboo
The Azande use chicken fordetecting witches
A movement whose members expect a messiah or prophet who will bring back a lost golden age of peace, prosperity, and harmony is calledNativism
The patterning of human interdependence in a given society through the actions and decisions of its members is calledsocial organization
An economic system dominated by the supply-demand-price mechanism called the “market” isCapitalism
Noncapitalist forms of economic exchange that are deeply embedded in social relations and always require reciprocity are calledGift exchanges
Impersonal economic exchanges typical of the capitalist market in which goods are exchanged for cash are calledCommodity exchange
Anthropologists consider a reciprocal situation in which parties to the exchange hope to get something for nothing to beNegative reciprocity
The mode of exchange that requires some form of centralized social organization to receive economic contributions from all members of the group and to allocate them in such a way as to provide for every member of the group is calledRedistribution
Which of the following is an example of redistribution?Salvation Army
Internal Revenue Service:
All of these
A __________ is a historically occurring set of social relations through which labor is organized to extract energy from the environment by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge.Mode of production
The social connections linking human beings who engage in different production tasks and who must work together are calledRelations of production
The tools, skills, organization, and knowledge used to extract energy from nature are theMeans of production
The using up of material goods necessary for human physical survival is calledConsumption
To the question “Why do people X raise peanuts and sorghum?” Malinowski would replyTo meet their basic human need for food
According to Marshall Sahlins, which of the following is a route to affluence?Desiring little
Producing much
Annette Weiner argues that the role of women’s wealth in Trobriand societyCould disappear if cash ever became widely substitutable for yams
Carole Counihan, cited in the text, notes that her younger female interviewees wereExpected to work for wages but also maintained the household, including doing the cooking
Transformative capacity is the text’s definition ofpower
The freedom of self-contained individuals to pursue their own interests above everything else and to challenge one another for dominance is known asFree agency
A world view that justifies the social arrangements under which people live is calledIdeology
According to Gramsci, rulers who provide some genuine benefits to their subjects, spread an ideology that justifies their rule, and nevertheless succeed in protecting their privileges are exercisingHegemony
According to Evans-Pritchard, Azande commoners did not accuse chiefs of witchcraft becauseWitches bewitch people they envy, and chiefs do not envy commoners
According to Michael Woost, a development scheme was never implemented in the Sri Lankan village he studied becauseEach local faction made what the others interpreted as unjust claims, blaming the lack of village unity on its opponents
Governmentality can best be understood as a way toManage individuals, goods, and wealth
Forms of power preoccupied with bodies, both the bodies of citizens and the social body of the state itself is calledBiopower
According to Aihwa Ong, as quoted in the text, one way that wealthy overseas Chinese can avoid the governmentality of a nation-state is byMoving to another country
In northern Thailand, according to Katherine Bowie (as discussed in the text), men get involved in politics becausePolitics is full of conflict, and it is better for strangers to the village (men) to be involved in conflicts
The French approach to multiculturalism is characterized by the promise to immigrants ofAll the rights and privileges of native-born citizens as long as they adopt French culture and language
The British approach to multiculturalism is characterized by the promise to immigrants oftoleration in the exercise of their cultural differences as long as they do not disrupt law and order or expect to become British
The German approach to multiculturalism is characterized by the promise to immigrants ofWork and legal protection but not citizenship
According to James Scott, foot-dragging, desertion, pilfering, slander, arson, and sabotage are examples ofEveryday forms of peasant resistance
In Sedaka, rich and poor villagers alike agreed thatUsing combine harvesters hurts the poor and helps the rich
Social relationships that are prototypically derived from the universal human experiences of mating, birth, and nurturance are calledkinship
Which of the following terms do anthropologists use to refer to the observable physical characteristics that distinguish the two kinds of human beings, male and female, needed for human biological reproduction?sex
Which of the following terms do anthropologists use to refer to the cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a particular society?gender
The hijras of Gujarat, India, are an example of a supernumerary sexBased on the surgical removal of genitalia on adult males
The principle that a descent group is formed by people who believe they are related to each other by connections made through their mothers and fathers equally is the principle ofBilateral descent
A unilineage can beEither matrilineal or patrilineal
Which of the following would NOT belong to a man’s patrilineage?His sister’s son
The transfer of certain symbolically important goods from the family of the groom to the family of the bride on the occasion of their marriage is calledBridewealth
In the vocabulary of kinship studies, father’s brother’s children or mother’s sister’s children are calledParallel cousins
“Daughter” and “son” are examples ofAscribed statuses
In Zumbagua, Ecuador, a family is defined asThose who eat together
According to Janet Dolgin, all the custody cases she reviewed were alike in that they awarded custody toThose parties whose living arrangements came closest to the traditional U.S. middle-class two-parent family
Marriage within the boundaries of a defined social group is calledEndogamy
Which of the following statements describes the relationship of Mende women toward their children?A Mende woman’s principal claim to her husband’s land or cash comes through her children.
Gay and lesbian activists studied by Kath Weston in San Francisco in the 1980s based their theory of family ties onNurturance