Chapter 7 Study Guide: Chemistry

(7.1) Ions Key TermTo find the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element, simply look at its group number
(7.1) Ions Key Term cont.A positively charged ion, or cation, is produced when an atom loses one or more valence electrons
(7.1) Ions Key Term cont.2An anion is produced when an atom gains one or more valence electrons
(7.2) Ionic Bonds & Ionic Compounds Key TermAlthough they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral
(7.2) Key Term cont.Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temp.
(7.2.) Key Terms cont.2Ionic compounds generally have high melting points
(7.2) Key Terms cont.3Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water
(7.3) Bonding in Metals Key TermThe valence electrons of an atom in a pure metal can be modeled as a sea of electrons
(7.3) Key Term cont.Alloys are important because their properties are often superior to those of their component elements
Valence ElectronThe electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an electrons atoms; largely determines the chemical properties of an element
Electron Dot StructureDiagrams that show valence electrons of an element as dots
Octet RuleStates that in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas; set of 8
Halide IonThe ions produced when atoms of chlorine and other halogens gain electrons
Ionic CompoundA compound composed of cation and anions
Ionic BondsThe electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds
Chemical FormulaShows the numbers of atoms of each element in the smallest representative unit of substance; ex- NaCl is sodium chloride
Formula UnitThe lowest whole-number ration of ions in an ionic compound
Coordination NumberThe number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal
Metallic BondThe forces of attraction between the free-floating valence electrons and the positively charged metal ions
AlloyMixtures of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal