What was new about the New Frontier?The 1960s would bring a sexual revolution, a civil rights
revolution, the emergence of a “youth culture,” a
devastating war in Vietnam, and the beginnings of a feminist revolution. JFK delivered a stirring inaugural address (“Ask not, what your country can do for you…”), and he also assembled a very young cabinet, including his brother, Robert Kennedy, as attorney general. Robert Kennedy tried to recast the priorities of the FBI, but was resisted by J. Edgar Hoover. Business whiz Robert S. McNamara took over the Defense Department. Early on, JFK proposed the Peace Corps, an army of idealist and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped countries.
John F. Kennedypresident during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
Jacqueline Kennedyfirst lady of JFK, contributed to sense of glamor, youth, and energy that surrounded Kennedy’s presidency
Bobby KennedyJohn Kennedy’s brother. He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan after a victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.
J. Edgar HooverFBI directer who urged HUAC to hold public hearings on communist subversion to find communist sympathisers and fellow travelers to isolate them and their influence. FBI sends agents to infiltrate groups suspected of subversion and wiretoppa telephnones
Robert McNamaraThe US Secretary of Defense during the battles in Vietnam. He was the architech for the Vietnam war and promptly resigned after the US lost badly
Peace Corpsa civilian organization sponsored by the United States government
Assess the effectiveness of New Frontier domestic policies.JFK did expand the House Rules Committee, but his program didn’t expand quickly, as medical and education bills remained stalled in Congress. JFK also had to keep a lid on inflation and maintain a good economy. However, almost immediately into his term, steel management announced great price increases, igniting the fury of the president, but JFK also earned fiery attacks by big business against the New Frontier.
Describe Kennedy’s relationship with Western Europe.JFK met Russian Premier Nikita Khrushchev and was threatened, but didn’t back down. In August of the 1961, the Soviets began building the Berlin Wall to separate East and West Germany. Western Europe, though, was now prospering after help from the super-successful Marshall Plan. America had also encouraged a Common Market (to keep trade barriers and tariff low in Europe), which later became the European Union (EU). The so-called Kennedy Round of tariff negotiations eased trade between Europe and the U.S. Unfortunately, French leader Charles de Gaulle was one who was suspicious of the U.S., and he rejected Britain’s application into the Common Market.
Berlin Walla wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Common Marketan international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Trade Expansion ActOctober, 1962 – The Act gave the President the power to reduce tariffs in order to promote trade. Kennedy could lower some tariffs by as much as 50%, and, in some cases, he could eliminate them.
Charles de GaulleFrench general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Why did Kennedy believe that a policy of flexible response could better meet the foreign problems of the 1960’s?Defense Secretary McNamara pushed a strategy of “flexible response,” which developed an array of military options that could match the gravity of whatever crises came to hand. One of these was the Green Berets, AKA, the “Special Forces”.
Congoa republic in west-central Africa
Laosa mountainous landlocked communist state in southeastern Asia
Robert McNamaraThe US Secretary of Defense during the battles in Vietnam. He was the architech for the Vietnam war and promptly resigned after the US lost badly
Flexible Responsethe buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
Why was it difficult to use flexible response to deal with the situation in South Vietnam?Defense Secretary McNamara pushed a strategy of “flexible response,” which developed an array of military options that could match the gravity of whatever crises came to hand. One of these was the Green Berets, AKA, the “Special Forces”.
Ngo Dinh DiemSouth Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom
Viet Conga Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
How could Cuba be considered the low and the high of Kennedy’s foreign policy?Kennedy also backed a U.S.-aided invasion of Cuba by rebels, but when the Bay of Pigs Invasion occurred, on April 17, 1961, it was a disaster, as Kennedy did not bring in the air support, and the revolt failed. This event pushed recently imposed Cuban leader Fidel Castro closer to the communist camp. JFK took full responsibility for the attack, and his popularity actually went up. Then, in 1962, U.S. spy planes recorded missile installations in Cuba. It was later revealed that these were, in fact, nuclear missiles aimed at America. The Cuban Missile Crisis lasted 13 nerve-racking days and put the U.S., the U.S.S.R., and the world at the brink of nuclear war. But in
the end, Khrushchev blinked, backed off of a U.S. naval blockade, looked very weak and indecisive, and lost his power soon afterwards. The Soviets agreed to remove their missiles if the U.S. vowed to never invade Cuba again; the U.S. also removed their own Russia-aimed
nuclear missiles in Turkey.
Alliance for Progressa program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems
Fidel CastroCuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Bay of PigsIn April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missile Crisisthe 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Nikita KhrushchevSoviet statesman and premier who denounced stalin (1894-1971)
Quarantineisolation to prevent the spread of infectious disease
Hot Linea direct telephone line between two officials
Were Kennedy’s Civil rights actions more the cause of events or a reaction to events in the civil rights movement?While Kennedy had campaigned a lot to appeal to black voters, when it came time to help them, he was hesitant and seemingly unwilling, taking much action. In the 1960s, groups of Freedom Riders chartered buses to tour through the South to try to end segregation, but white mobs often reacted violently towards them. This drew more attention to the segregation and what went on down South. Slowly but surely, Kennedy urged civil rights along, encouraging the establishment of the SNCC, a Voter Education Project to register the South’s blacks to vote.
Freedom RidersGroup of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
Martin Luther King, Jr.U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
SNCCStudent Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such
James MeredithUnited States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933)
Birminghama city in central England
March on Washingtonheld in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous “I have a dream…” speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
“I Have a Dream”Martin Luther King Jr.
Medgar EversUnited States civil rights worker in Mississippi
What was the reaction to Kennedy’s assassination? Why?On November 22, 1963, while riding down a street in Dallas, Texas, JFK was shot and killed, allegedly by Lee Harvey Oswald, who was himself shot by self-proclaimed avenger Jack Ruby, and there was much controversy and scandal and conspiracy in the assassination. Lyndon B. Johnson became the new president of the United States as only the fourth president to succeed an assassinated president. It was only after Kennedy’s death that America realized what a charismatic, energetic, and vibrant president they had lost.
Lee Harvey OswaldUnited States assassin of President John F. Kennedy (1939-1963)
Jack Rubykilled Lee Harvey Oswald
Warren CommissionCommission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.
Did Johnson provide good leadership to the country in his first term? Explain.As a president, LBJ went from conservative to liberal, helping pass a Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned all racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public, including theaters, hospitals, and restaurants.
Also created was the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which was aimed at eliminating discriminatory hiring. Johnson’s program was dubbed the “Great Society,” and it reflected its New Deal inspirations.
Public support for the program was aroused by Michael
Harrington’s The Other America, which revealed that over 20% of American suffered in poverty.
Your book says that the 1964 election was a contest between distinctly different political philosophies? Explain this idea.In 1964, LBJ was opposed by Republican Arizona senator Barry Goldwater who attacked the federal income tax, the Social Security system, the Tennessee Valley Authority, civil rights legislation, the nuclear test-ban treaty, and the Great Society. However, Johnson used the Tonkin Gulf Incident, in which North Vietnamese ships allegedly fired on American ships, to attack (at least partially) Vietnam, and he also got approval for the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, which gave him a virtual blank check on what he could do in affairs in Vietnam.
Barry Goldwater1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history
Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionThe Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
In what ways could it be said that 1964-1968 marked some of the most liberal years for government in Amercan History?Johnson’s win was also coupled by sweeping Democratic wins that enabled him to pass his Great Society programs. Congress doubled the appropriation on the Office of Economic Opportunity to $2 billion and granted more than $1 billion to refurbish Appalachia, which had been stagnant. Johnson also created the Department of Transportation and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), headed by Robert C. Weaver, the first black cabinet secretary in the United States’
history. LBJ also wanted aid to education, medical care for the elderly and indigent, immigration reform, and a new voting rights bill.
Dept. of Housing and Urban Developmentcreates housing programs and deals with issues affecting cities
Medicarehealth care for the aged
Medicaidhealth care for the needy
EntitlementsA claim for government funds that cannot be abridged without violating the rights of the claimant; for example, social security benefits or payments on a contract.
Immigration and Nationality Act(1965) This law made it easier for entire families to migrate and established “special categories” for political refugees. This act increased the amount of immigration.
Head Starta preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services
What forward steps toward voting for African-American were made in the mid-1960’s?Johnson’s Voting Rights Act of 1965 attacked racial
discrimination at the polls by outlawing literacy tests and sending voting registrars to the polls. The 24th Amendment eliminated poll taxes, and in the “freedom
summer” of 1964, both blacks and white students joined to combat discrimination and racism.
Voting Rights Act of 19651965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
The Twenty-fourth Amendment(1964) Prohibits poll taxes in federal elections
Freedom SummerIn 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Mississippi FreedomHowever, in June of 1964, a black and two white civil rights workers were found murdered, and 21 white Mississippians were arrested for the murders, but the all-white jury refused to convict the suspects. Also, an integrated “Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party” was denied its seat.
Selmaa town in central Alabama on the Alabama river
Why did African-Americans turn from non-violence in the late 1960’s?1965 began a period of violent black protests, such as the one in the Watts area of L.A., as black leaders, mocking Martin Luther King, Jr., like Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little), who was inspired by the Nation of Islam and its founder, Elijah Muhammed. They urged action
now, even if it required violence, to the tune of his battle cry, “by any means necessary.” But, Malcolm X was killed in 1965by an assassin.
WattsEnglish poet and theologian (1674-1748)
Malcolm Xmilitant civil rights leader (1925-1965)
Elijah MuhammedCreated the Nation of Islam in America with members who were criminals. Believed in total separation of races. Started murdering and eating their own children and murdered Malcom X, when he said that white folks were not as bad as he had thought.
Black Panthersa militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
Stokely Carmichaelhead of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
Why did President Johnson increase America’s military presence in Vietnam?In Vietnam, though, he slowly sent more and more U.S. men to fight the war, and the South Vietnamese became spectators in their own war. Meanwhile, more and more Americans died.
Operation Rolling Thunderbombing campaign over North Vietnam, supposed to weaken enemy’s ability and will to fight
Guerilla Warfaretype of fighting in which soldiers use swift hit-and-run attacks against the enemy
Describe the negative consequences of the Vietnam war.America was floundering in Vietnam and was being condemned for its actions there, and French leader Charles de Gaulle also ordered NATO off French soil in 1966. Meanwhile, numerous protests in America went against the Vietnam War and the draft. Opposition was headed by the influential Senate Committee of Foreign Relations, headed by Senator William Fullbright of Arkansas. “Doves” (peace lovers) and “Hawks” (war supporters) clashed.
Six-day War(1967) Short conflict between Egypt and her allies against Israel won by Israel; Israel took over the Golan Heights , The West Bank of the Jordan River; and the Sanai Peninsula.
Teach-InsSpecial session of lecture and discussion on a controversial topic that often occurred during the Vietnam War era
William FulbrightUnited States senator who is remembered for his creation of grants that fund exchange programs of teachers and students between the United States and other countries (1905-1995)
Credibility GapThe gap between the Johnson Administration and the American public support
CointelproAn FBI program begun in 1956 and continued until 1971 that sought to expose, disrupt, and discredit groups considered to be radical political organizations: Targeted antiwar groups during the Vietnam War.
Why did President Johnson decide not to run for re-election in 1968?Johnson was personally suffering at the American casualties, and he wept as he signed condolence letters and even prayed with Catholic monks in a nearby church—at night, secretly. And, the fact that North Vietnam had almost taken over Saigon in a blistering attack called the Tet Offensive didn’t help either. Johnson also saw a challenge for the Democratic ticket from Eugene
McCarthy and Robert Kennedy, and the nation, as well as the Democratic party, was starting to be split by Vietnam.
LBJ refused to sign an order for more troops to Vietnam.
Then, on March 31, 1968, Johnson declared that he would stop sending in troops to Vietnam and that he would not run in 1968, shocking America.
Tet offensive1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Eugene McCarthy1968 Democratic candidate for President who ran to succeed incumbent Lyndon Baines Johnson on an anti-war platform.
Why was the 1968 presidential election an interesting one?On June 5, 1968, Robert Kennedy was shot fatally, and the Democratic ticket went to Hubert Humphrey, Johnson’s “heir.” The Republicans responded with Richard Nixon, paired with Spiro Agnew, and there was also a third-party candidate: George C. Wallace, former governor of Alabama, a segregationist who wanted to bomb the Vietnamese to death. Nixon won a nail-biter, and Wallace didn’t do that badly either, though worse than expected. A minority president, he owed his presidency to protests over the war, the unfair draft, crime, and rioting.
Hubert HumphreyLBJ’s vice president and McCarthy’s opposition in 1968 primary after LBJ stepped down. won nomination; not presidency.
Robert KennedyHe was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans.
Democratic ConventionIn Chicago in 1968; where Democratic delegates gathered to nominate Vice-president Hubert Humphrey. The hall was protected with barbed wire and police officers to keep the protesters away.
Richard NixonVice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States
George Wallaceracist gov. of Alabama in 1962 (“segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever”); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot
“Nixon had recieved no clear mandate”. explain.Poor Lyndon Johnson returned to his Texas ranch and died there in 1973. He had committed Americans into Vietnam with noble intentions, and he really wasn’t a bad guy, but he was stuck in a time when he was damned if he did and damned if he didn’t. It could be said that few presidents were as great a success or as great a failure as Lyndon Johnson.
Why did a 1960’s counterculture develop and how was it expressed?In the 60s, the youth of America experimented with sex, drugs, and defiance. They protested against conventional wisdom, authority, and traditional beliefs.
Berkeleya city in California on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay
Sexual Revolutionparticipants int he counterculture demanded more lifestyle freedom; their new views of sexual conduct, which rejected many traditional behavioral restrictions, were lableled this
Stonewall Innan American bar in NYC and the site for the Stonewall riots of 1969 which are widely considered the start of the modern gay liberation movement
Students for a Democratic SocietyFounded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.
LSDa powerful hallucinogenic drug manufactured from lysergic acid
The Sixties: Constructive or Destructive?Both constructive and destructive