AP Human Geography Unit 5 Vocab

Adaptive Strategiesthe unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life- food, clothing, shelter, and defense.
AgrarianConcerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
AgribusinessCommercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural Industrializationprocess whereby the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to become one part of an integrated string of vertically organized industrial processes including production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing and retailing
Agricultural LandscapeThe land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields. Effects how much yield one gets from their plants.
Agricultural Location ModelA model designed by Von Thunen that depending on the cost of transportation and the value of the product different types of farming are conducted at different distances from a city.site or human factors were not considered in this model
Agricultural OriginsThrough time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for there own use. Carl Sauer points out vegetative planting and seed agriculture as the original forms. He also points out that vegetative planting likely was originated in SE Asia and seed agriculture originated in W. India, N. China and Ethiopia. Without the development of agriculture we would still have a relatively small and likely uneducated population.
Animal Domesticationthe taming of animals through generations of breeding to live in close association with humans as a pet or work animal
AquacultureRaising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages
BiorevolutionThe revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies
BiotechnologyA form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
Collective FarmGovernment owned farms, workers were paid by government and they shared profits from products.
Commercial AgricultureAgriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Intensive AgricultureA form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Extensive AgricultureAn agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.,

consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre

Corethe portion of a country that contains its economic, political, intellectual, and cultural focus.
PeripheryA boundary line; perimeter; an outside surface
Crop RotationThe practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Cultivation Regionsregions in which large amounts of agriculture take place
DairyingAn agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Debt-for-nature SwapAgreement in which a certain amount of foreign debt is canceled in exchange for local currency investments that will improve natural resource management or protect certain areas in the debtor country from harmful development.
DiffusionMovement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Double CroppingHarvesting twice a year from the same field.
Economic Activityany action that relates to the making, buying, and selling of goods and services
Primary Activityeconomic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment– such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Secondary Activityeconomic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
Tertiary Activityeconomic activity associated with the provision fo services (transportation, banking, retailing, education, routine, office-based jobs)
Quaternary Activityservice sector industires concerned with the collection, processing, and manipuation of information and capital (finance, administration, insurance, legal services)
Quinary Activityservice sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill (scientific research, high-level management)
Environmental ModificationChanges in the ecosystem resulting from human activities such as the use of pesticides, soil erosion, desertification.
PesticidesAny one of various substances used to kill harmful insects (insecticide), fungi (fungicide), vermin, or other living organisms that destroy or inhibit plant growth, carry disease, or are otherwise harmful.
Soil ErosionMovement of soil components, especially topsoil, from one place to another, usually by wind, flowing water, or both. This natural process can be greatly accelerated by human activities that remove vegetation from soil.
DesertificationDegradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Extensive Subsistenceconsists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
Shifting CultivationA form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Slash-and-BurnAnother name for shifring cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
MilpaA system of effective agriculture used throughout Mesoamerica that relies on crop rotation and the planting of multiple crops in a single field. The term is derived from a Nahuatl word meaning ‘field.’
SwiddenA patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Nomadic Herdingthe raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water
PastoralismA type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Extractive IndustryIndustries involved in the activities of prospecting, exploring, developing, and producing for non-regenerative natural resources from the Earth
Farm CrisisThe mass production of farm products that lowers the prices, which lowers the profits for farmers. This had led to the decrease in small farms.
FeedlotConfined outdoor or indoor space used to raise hundreds to thousands of domesticated livestock, where they are fattened for market
First Agricultural RevolutionDating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
Fishingthe occupation of catching fish for a living
Food Chain(ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
Forestrythe science of planting and caring for forests and the management of growing timber
Globalized AgricultureDiffusion of agriculture across the globe
Green RevolutionA shift in agricultural practices in the twentieth century that included new management techniques, mechanization, fertilization, irrigation, and improved crop varieties, and resulted in increased food output
Growing SeasonThe season in which crops grow best. Growing season can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can’t grow at their latitude.
Hunting and GatheringThe killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
Intensive Subsistence AgricultureA form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Intertillagethe clearing of rows in the field through the use of hoes, rakes, & other manual equipment
Livestock RanchingAn extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
Market GardeningThe small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually.
Mediterranean AgricultureAn agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados,
Mineral FuelsNatural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources.
Miningthe act of extracting ores or coal etc from the earth
Planned EconomyEconomy that relies on a centralized government to control all or most factors of production and to make all or most production and allocation decisions
Plant Domesticationgenetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
Plantation AgricultureProduction system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
RenewableAny natural resource (as wood or solar energy) that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time
NonrenewableA natural resource that cannot be replaced or that can be replaced only over thousands or millions of years.
Rural SettlementSparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism (ecotourism).
Dispersed Settlementcharacterized by a lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads.
Nucleated Settlementa compact closely packed settlement sharply demarcated from adjoining farmland
Building Material Settlementshouses and buildings are typically built from materials that are abundant in the area.
Village Form SettlementsA village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand
Sauer, Carl O1925 geographer @ university of California; argued that cultural landscapes (products of complex interactions between humans and their environments); should be the fundamental focus of geographic inquiry
Second Agricultural RevolutionDovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce.
SpecializationA focus on a particular activity or area of study
Staple GrainsMaize, wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food. Maize staple food of North America, South American, Africa, and livestock worldwide, wheat is primary in temperate regions, and rice in tropical regions.

A basic food grain that is used frequently and in large amounts

Suitcase FarmIn American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews.
Survey Patternslines laid out by surveyors prior to the settlement of an area
Long LotsA system of farming where lots up to a half mile or more extend back from a river, which farmers use as their primary means of hauling their agricultural products to the market.
Metes and BoundsA method of land description which involves identifying distances and directions and makes use of both the physical boundaries and measurements of the land.
Township-and-rangea rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
Sustainable YieldHighest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
Third Agricultural Revolution20th century; tractor; monoculture; irrigation; petroleum; Agro-Biotechnology
MechanizationIn agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines.
Chemical FarmingIncreased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The development of higher-yield crops has produced: a ‘miracle wheat seed” which is shorter and stiffer, less sensitive to variation in day length, responds better to fertilizers, and matures faster; a similar miracle rice seed, that was heartier and has increased yields; a high-yield corn seed is currently being developed.
Food Manufacturingthe mass production of food products from raw animal and plan materials utilizing the principles of food technology
“Tragedy of the Commons”situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community
TranshumanceThe seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Truck FarmCommercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.
Von Thunen, Johann HeinrichGerman farmer who initially proposed model which suggested the trend of crop location in commercial farming.