Bio 122 Chapter 22 Respiratory System

Inspiration begins asthe diaphragm contracts
What is the result of inspiration?An increased alveolar volume causes decreased alveolar pressure
Which of the following occurs during expiration?Decreased alveolar volume causes increased alveolar pressure
Which of the following is true at the arterial ends of the pulmonary capillaries?The PO2 is lower in the capillaries and in the alveoli
Which of the following is true at the venous ends of the pulmonary capillaries?The PCO2 is equal in the capillaries and in the alveoli
At the arterial end of a tissue capillary, rank the following structures from highest to lowest PO2.Capillaries, tissue fluid, cells
Which of the following statements about partial pressures of gases in the lungs is true?PO2 in the lungs > PO2 in the blood ; PCO2 < PCO2 in the blood
Which of the following statement about partial pressures of gases in the tissues is true?PO2 in blood > PO2 in tissues; PCO2 in blood < PCO2 in tissues
What is Dyspnea?Labored, gasping breathing
What is Hyperventilation?Increased pulmonary ventilation
What is Kussmaul Respiration?Rapid breathing induced by acidosis
What is Apnea?Temporary cessation of breathing
What is Respiratory Arrest?Permanent cessation of breathing
What is Orthopnea?Dyspnea when lying down
What is Hyperpnea?Increased breathing in response to exercise
What is Hypoventilation?Reduced pulmonary ventilation
What is Tachypnea?Accelerated respiration
What is the definition of partial pressure?The separate contribution of pressure by each individual gas comprising air
What is Hypoxemic Hypoxia?A state of low arterial PO2 due to poor pulmonary gas exchange
What is Histotoxic Hypoxia?Occurs when a poison prevents the tissues from using oxygen
What is Anemic Hypoxia?Due to the inability of the blood to carry adequate oxygen
What is Ischemic Hypoxia?Results from inadequate circulation of the blood
Because gas exchange does not occur within the conducting division of the respiratory system, it is also referred to as what?Anatomical dead space
Air consists of about 78.6% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, and 0.04% carbon dioxide. If we assume sea-level pressure of 760 mm Hg, what is the PO2?159 mm Hg
Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?Assists in the synthesis of vasodilators
The upper respiratory tract extends from the nose through the ________larynx
The nose is divided into right and left halves called the ____Nasal fossae
Which two ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages?Vestibular and vocal
What are the most numerous cells in the lungs?Dust cells
Each alveolus is surrounded by a web of blood capillaries supplied by the ___________Pulmonary artery
Which of the following does not contain ciliated cells?Larygopharynx
What is the basic distinction between an alveolar duct and an alveolar atrium?Their shape
Which bronchus is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the one on the opposite side?Left main bronchus
The heart indents into the _______ of the left lungCardiac Notch
The respiratory system contain a total of five __________Lobes
Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except the ___________Epiglottis
Which of the following cartilages is largest?Thyroid cartilage
Which law states that total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases?Dalton’s
In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?Bronchiole diameter
The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is the _________Inspiratory reserve volume
How is the vital capacity calculated?Expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?Kussmaul Respiration
Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except _________________Carbonate
Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. why does a good samaritan have up to 4 to 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Toms life?There is a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom’s blood
During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?Anticipation of the needs of exercising muscles
Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?An increase in membrane thickness
The addition of CO2 to the blood generates ____________ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygenHydrogen
Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?Erythrocyte count
In the air we breathe, which gas is found in the highest concentration?Nitrogen
Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to _________ oxygen molecules4
Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?Carbonic Anhydrase
In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?20% to 25%
Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?Hypoxia
Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?Ischemic Hypoxia
Which of the following is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hyper secretion , and thick sputum?Chronic Bronchitis
Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?Sickle-cell disease
Which of the following is a lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli?Emphysema
In which condition are the lungs infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis?Tuberculosis
Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?Adenocarcinoma
Polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in which condition?Ondine’s curse
Which of these is most likely to result from contract between contaminated fingers and nasal mucosa?Acute rhintis
Scuba divers breathe a nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid what condition?Oxygen toxicity
Nitrogen bubble can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called _________Decompression sickness
The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in the ______________Medulla Oblongata
Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by ________ of the respiratory tractGoblet Cells
The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ________ than in any other formBicarbonate ions
Among its other purposes, how is the Valsalva maneuver used?To aid in defecation and urination
Blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphoglycerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well
Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is __________ mL/min.4,200
Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1,200 mL. Your vital capacity is __________ mL4,700
The rate of oxygen diffusion is affected by the pressure gradient of carbon dioxide.False
Output from higher brain centers can bypass both the DRG and VRG and go directly to __________, which controls the accessory muscles of respiration.Spinal Integration Centers
Which of the following issues output to the VRG to adjust the respiratory rhythm?DRG
Which center bears the primary responsibility for generating the respiratory rhythm, but is influenced by several other centers?VRG
The pH of the cerebrospinal fluid is monitored by which of these brainstem centers?Central chemoreceptors
Emotional states are integrated by the __________, which generates an output that creates such respiratory variations as laughing and crying.PRG
f one inspires through their nose, which of the following answers has the correct order of structures the air would move through?Nares → Vestibule → Nasal Cavity → Nasopharynx → Oropharynx → Laryngopharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Primary Bronchus → Secondary Bronchus → Tertiary Bronchus → Bronchiole → Terminal Bronchiole → Respiratory Bronchiole → Alveolar Duct → Alveolar Sac → Alveolus
Upon inspiration, what is the name of the air in the conducting division that is not available for gas exchange?Anatomical dead space
The anatomical dead space is greatest in which of the following situations?After swerving to narrowly avoid an accident while driving
Air consists of about 78.6% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and 0.5% water. At sea level, (760 mmHg) what is the PCO2?0.3 mm Hg
Which law states that the total atmospheric pressure is a sum of the contributions of the individual gases?Dalton’s
How is alveolar air different than inspired air?Alveolar air has a higher PH2O than inhaled air
Metabolically active tissues have which of the following sets of conditions that shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the right?↓ PO2, ↑ PCO2, ↑ temperature, ↑ BPG
Conditions around metabolically active tissues do what to the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?Shift it right
Hypocapnia will lead to which of the following conditions?Hypoventilation due to alkalosis
What is the least common but most dangerous form of lung cancer?Small-cell carcinoma
LarynxVoice Box
Pharynx
Nostril
Hard palate
Nasal CavityInternal chamber of the nose
EpiglottisThe superior opening of the larynx is guarded by a flap of tissue
TracheaA large membranous tube reinforced by rings of cartilage
Right LungDivided into three lobes, an upper, middle and a lower. Has the same segments as the left
Pleural CavityIs the space that lies between the pleura, the two thin membranes that line and surround the lungs
DiaphragmA dome-shaped, muscular partition separating the thorax from the abdomen in mammals. Major role in breathing
Left Main Bronchussmaller in caliber but loner than the right being 5cm long.
Lobar BronchusA bronchus extending from a primary bronchus to a segmental bronchus into one of the lobes of the right or left lung
Segmental Bronchusone of the divisions of the lobar bronchus that supplies a bronchopulmonary segment
Apex of lungExtends into the root of the neck, reaching shortly above the level of the sternal end of the first rib
Superior Lobe of the Lungsthe lobe of the right lung that lies above the oblique and horizontal fissures and included the apical
Superior Lobar Bronchus
Horizontal fissureA unilateral structure in the right lung that separates the right middle lobe from the right upper lobe