Biology End Of Course Exam Study Guide

ScienceA process of inquiry that searches for relations that explain and predict the physical, living, and designed world.
ObservationA first handed encounter that leads a scientist to their proposed explanation (2 parts: qualitative, and quantitative.)
HypothesisMore than an educated guess; testable predictions based on scientist observations (if, then statements.).
ExperimentationA controlled study, designed to prove a cause and effect of the relationship.
MathematicsData Analysis.
DataInfo gathered from observations and experimentation.
Quantitative DataNumber Data.
Qualitative DataDescriptive Data.
InferenceA logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience.
FactA truth known by actual experience or observation.
PrincipleAn accepted idea as truth.
ObservationProcess of gathering data.
TheoryAn idea that explains many related observations and is supported by a large body of evidence acquired through scientific investigation.
LawA descriptive statement or equation that reliably predicts events under certain conditions.
OrganismA living being.
BiologyThe study of living organisms.
Unicellular OrganismSingle cell organism.
Multicellular OrganismAn organism made of more than one cell.
GrowthIncrease in size.
DevelopmentThe progressive changes in size and function.
MacromoleculesCompounds that contain carbon: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids.
MonosaccharideA small unit, the building blocks of polymers.
DisaccharideTwo groups of elements, only two monomers.
PolysaccharideMany monomers together, more that two.
CarbohydratesMade with Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen, it is usually the bread and wheat products we eat used for short-term energy.
LipidsMade with Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen, it is the fats and oils we consume.
ProteinsMade with Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen, it is the element we get from consuming meats and peanuts.
Nucleic AcidMade with Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus. It is our DNA and RNA.
Amino AcidsBuilding blocks of protein.
WaterA molecule made with two parts hydrogen one part oxygen.
CohesionAttraction between particles of the same substance.
AdhesionAttraction between two different substances.
Specific HeatThe amount of heat needed to raise or lower 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius.
Deoxyribonucleic AcidMolecule made with two strands connected with nitrogen bases that code for a genetic phenotype.
NucleotidesThe building blocks of DNA which include a 5 carbon pentose sugar group, a phosphate group, and nitrogen bases.
EnzymeProtein that speeds up reaction naturally.
A, T, C, G, UBase pairs of DNA and RNA.
MitosisProcess where a cell splits into identical daughter cells, its the cell division of somatic cells.
ReplicationMaking a copy of DNA.
TranscriptionDNA becomes RNA in the nucleus of a cell.
TranslationRNA becomes proteins in the cytoplasm of a cell.
KaryotypeAn organized picture of the chromosomes of a human arranged in pairs by size from largest to smallest.
AutosomesChromosomes that are not involved in determining gender.
DiploidNormal amount of genetic material (2N).
Haploid1/2 the genetic material (N).
MeiosisCell division of sex cells (non-somatic). Creates 4 unidentical daughter cells.
GametesSex cells, haploid. Join together to make a zygote.
ZygoteOffspring of two, haploid, gamete cells. Becomes Diploid.
OogenesisProduced in female ovaries, makes gametes (eggs).
SpermatogenesisProduced in males, makes gametes (sperm).
Homologous PairsA pair (2) of the same chromosome.
CrossoverWhen genes exchange between chromosomes.
CancerUncontrolled Mitosis.
GeneticsThe study of heredity.
HeredityThe passing of characteristics from parents to offspring.
TraitsDistinguishing characteristics that are inherited.
GeneA piece of DNA that provides set of instructions to a cell to make a certain protein.
AlleleA part of a chromosome that are different versions of the same gene.
HybridsOffspring of true-breeding plants.
GenotypeGenetic makeup for a specific trait.
PhenotypePhysical characteristics, traits that are shown.
Homozygous2 alleles that are the same.
Heterozygous2 alleles that are different.
Dominant GeneStronger than recessive, shown in phenotype.
Recessive GeneWeaker than dominant, is not shown in the phenotype but in genotype.
Incomplete DominanceWhen the heterozygous phenotype is blended, where the genes are completely different.
CodominanceWhen the heterozygous phenotype expresses both traits completely and separately.
PedigreeA graphic representation of genetic inheritance.
ProkaryotesSingle celled organisms. Example: bacteria.
EukaryotesMulti cellular organisms. Example: animals.
OrganellesMembrane-bound Structures found only in eukaryotic cells.