Ch 18 (anatomy)

The inner lining of the heart.Endocardium
Heart muscle.Myocardium
Serous layer covering the heart muscleEpicardium
The outermost layer of the serous pericardium.Parietal layer
The pacemaker of the heart.SA node
Found in the interventricular septum.AV bundle
Network found in the ventricular myocardium.Purkinje fibers
The point in the conduction system of the heart where the impulse is temporarily delayed.AV node
Prevents backflow into the left ventricle.

Prevents backflow into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve
Prevents backflow into the right atrium.Tricuspid valve
Prevents backflow into the left atrium.Mitral valve
Prevents backflow into the right ventricle.Pulmonary valves
AV valve with two flaps.Mitral valve
AV valve with three flaps.Tricuspid valve
The myocardium receives its blood supply from the coronary arteries.True
Cardiac muscle has more mitochondria and depends less on a continual supply of oxygen than does skeletal muscle.False
Proper function of the heart is dependent upon blood levels of ionic sodium.False
Congestive heart failure means that the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that there is inadequate delivery of blood to body tissues.True
Tissues damaged by myocardial infarction are replaced by connective tissue.True
The left side of the heart pumps the same volume of blood as the right.True
Chronic release of excess thyroxine can cause a sustained increase in heart rate and a weakened heart.True
The mitral valve has chordae but the tricuspid valve does not.False
Trabeculae carneae are found in the ventricles and never the atria.True
The “lub” sounds of the heart are valuable in diagnosis because they provide information about the function of the heart’s pulmonary and aortic valves.False
Autonomic regulation of heart rate is via two reflex centers found in the pons.False
The dicrotic notch refers to the brief rise in pressure caused by the closure of the AV valves during ventricular systole.False
An ECG provides direct information about valve function.False
As pressure in the aorta rises due to atherosclerosis, more ventricular pressure is required to open the aortic valve.True
Proxysmal atrial tachycardia is characterized by bursts of atrial contractions with little pause between them.True
Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?closure of the heart valves
Cardiac reserve ________.can be improved by regular exercise
Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes ________.a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________.pump blood with greater pressure
Damage to the ________ is referred to as heart block.AV node
The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________.atrial depolarization
Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the ________.left atrium
Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the ________.papillary muscles
The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is ________.)

angina pectoris

To auscultate the aortic valve, you would place your stethoscope ________.)

in the second intercostal space to the right of the sternum

The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the ________.coronary arteries
When the heart is beating at a rate of 75 times per minute, the duration of one cardiac cycle is ________ second(s).0.8
Which of the following factors does not influence heart rate?skin color
)

Which of the following is not an age-related change affecting the heart?

thinning of the valve flaps
If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ________.decreased delivery of oxygen
Cardiac muscle cells are like skeletal muscle cells in that they ________.have I and A bands
Cardiac output is about ________ L/min.5.25
The pericardial cavity ________.contains a lubricating fluid called serous fluid
If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells ________.tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart’s pumping action
Norepinephrine acts on the heart by ________.causing threshold to be reached more quickly
If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that ________.the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute
Foramen ovale ________.connects the two atria in the fetal heart
The stroke volume for a normal resting heart is ________ ml/beat.70
Which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole?pulmonary trunk
Blood ejected from the ventricles enters which of these vessels during ventricular systole?both the aorta and pulmonary trunk
Which of the following is not part of the conduction system of the heart?AV valve
The tricuspid valve is closed ________.when the ventricle is in systole
When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by ________.noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls
Select the correct statement about the heart valves.The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that they do not blow back up into the atria during ventricular contraction.
Select the correct statement about the function of myocardial cells.The all-or-none law as applied to cardiac muscle means that the entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all.
Select the correct statement about the structure of the heart wall.The myocardium is the layer of the heart that actually contracts.
Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ________.has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium
Cardiac muscle ________.has sarcomeres with A bands and I bands
The deflection waves in an ECG tracing include ________.the T wave, which indicates ventricular repolarization
During the period of ventricular filling ________.blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves
The effect of endurance-type athletic training may be to lower the resting heart rate. This phenomenon ________.is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle
The second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle?isovolumetric relaxation
The time of day most hazardous for heart attacks is ________.morning
If a significant amount of connective tissue were to develop connecting the visceral and parietal pericardial layers together, which of the following would be a likely consequence?interference with normal mechanical cardiac activity
If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells so that sodium influx is more rapid, ________.threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase
Select the correct statement about cardiac output.A slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction.
During contraction of heart muscle cells ________.some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from intracellular stores
Isovolumetric contraction ________.refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers
Commotio cordis is heart failure due to a ________.relatively mild blow to the chest
Negative chronotropic factors are factors that ________.decrease heart rate