AP Human Geography | Chapter 3 Vocabulary

RemittancesMoney migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries.
Cyclic MovementsMovement – for example, nomadic migration – that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally.
Periodic MovementFor example, college attendance or military service – that involves temporary, recurrent relocation.
MigrationA change in residence intended to be permanent.
Activity SpacesThe space within which daily activity occurs.
NomadismMovement among a definite set of places
Migrant LaborA common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers in the United States and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances.
TranshumanceA seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures.
Military ServiceAnother common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million United States citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years
International MigrationHuman movement involving movement across international boundaries.
ImmigrationThe act of a person migrating into a particular country or era.
Internal MigrationHuman movement within a nation-state, such as ongoing westward and southward movements in the United States.
Forced MigrationHuman migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate
Voluntary MigrationMovement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity, not because they are forced to move.
Laws of MigrationDeveloped by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, five laws that predict the flow of migrants.
Gravity ModelA mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them.
Push FactorsNegative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location
Pull FactorsPositive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas.
Distance DecayThe effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction.
Step MigrationMigration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Intervening OpportunityThe presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
DeportationThe act of the government sending a migrant out of its country and back to the migrants home country.
Kinship LinksTypes of push factors or pull factors that influence a migrant’s decision to go where family or friends have already found success.
Chain MigrationA pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links (i.e. one migrant settles in a place and then writes, calls, or communicates through others to describe this place to family and friends who in turn then migrate there)
Immigration WavePhenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination.
Global Scale MigratiomMigration that takes place across international boundaries and between world regions.
ExplorersA person examining a region that is unknown to them.
ColonizationA physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land.
Regional ScaleInteractions occurring within a region, in a regional setting.
Islands of DevelopmentPlace built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure..
RussificationThe Soviet policy to promote the diffusion of Russian culture throughout the republics of the former Soviet Union.
Guest WorkersLegal immigrant who has a work visa, usually short term.
RefugeesPeople who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country.
Internally Displaced PersonsPeople who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee.
AsylumShelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state.
RepatriationA refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or a non-governmental organization.
GenocideActs committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial, or religious group.
Immigration LawsLaws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.
QuotasEstablished limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year.
Selective ImmigrationProcess to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds (i.e. criminal records, poor health, or subversive activities) are barred from immigrating.