AP Human Geography Chapter 3 Vocabulary

Brain DrainLare-scale emigration by talented people

Ex. Giving preference to skilled workers, the immigration policies of Europe and the United States contribute to a brain drain

Chain MigrationMigration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

Ex. Immigrants settle in communities where people from their country previously settled (Chinatown)

CirculationShort-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur one a regular basis

Ex. Traveling each day from your home to work, and back home

CounterurbanizationNet migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries

Ex. Results from rapid expansion of the suburbs

EmigrationMigration from a location

Ex. Mexicans emigrate from Mexico due to a lack of job opportunity

FloodplainThe area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends

Ex. People who live in the “100 year Floodplain” can expect flooding once every century

Forced migrationPermanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors

Ex. Cultural factors normal compel forced migration.

Guest workersWorkers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually fro Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher paying jobs

Ex. In Europe, guest workers are protected by minimum-wage laws, labor union contracts, and other support programs

ImmigrationMigration to a new location

Ex. Mexicans immigrate to the United States in search of economic independence

Internal migrationPermanent movement within a particular country

Ex. Consistent with the distance decay law in that the further away a place is, the less likely you are to migrate to it

International migrationPermanent movement from one country to another

Ex. International migrants are much less numerous than internal migrants

Interregional migrationPermanent movement from one region of a country to another

Ex. The main type of interregional migration has been from rural to urban ares in search of jobs

Intervening obstacleAn environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration

Ex. Bodies of water have been long important intervening obstacles

Intraregional migrationPermanent movement within one region of a country

Ex. The main type of intraregional migration has been within urban areas, from older cities to newer suburbs

MigrationForm of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location

Ex. The flow of migration involves connections between 2 locations

Migration transitionChange in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition

Ex. According to the migration transition, international migration is primarily a phenomenon of countries in stage 2 of the demographic transition whereas internal migration is more important in stage 3 and 4

MobilityAll types of movement from one location to another

Ex. People display mobility in many ways, such as by journeying every weekday from their homes to places of work or education and once a week to shops, places of worship, or recreation areas

Net migrationThe difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration

Ex. If the number of immigrants exceeds the number of emigrants, the net migration is positive

Pull factorFactor that induces people to move to a new location

Ex. Promising economic opportunity is a pull factor that pulls immigrants to the United States

Push factorFactor that induces people to leave old residences

Ex. Religious oppression is a push factor that leads emigrants to leave many countries

QuotasIn reference to migration laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year

Ex. The era of unrestricted immigration to the United States ended when Congress passed the Quota Act in 1921 and the National Origins Act in 1924

RefugeesPeople who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion

Ex. Refugees have no home until another country agrees to take them in, or improving conditions make it possible for them to return home

Unauthorized immigrantsPeople who enter a country without proper documents

Ex. People are in the United States without authorization primarily because they wish to work but do not have permission to do so from the government

Voluntary migrationPermanent movement undertaken by choice

Ex. Migration prompted by promising economic opportunity in another country