Ap Human Geography: Chapter 12 Vocabulary

Back OfficesAn office or center in which the administrative work of a business is carried out, as opposed to its dealings with customers. also known as business process outsourcing (BPO). Typical ________ include processing insurance claims, payroll management, transcription work, and other routine clerical activities. _________ work also includes centers for responding to billing inquiries related to credit cards, shipments, and claims, or technical inquiries related to installation, operation, and repair.
Call CentersA centralized office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. One of the fastest growing activities in the global economy. These places take orders and provide customer service at the other end of the “800” numbers. Many of these services are based in India and other Asian countries due to the employees in these lesser developed countries will work for less money.
OutsourcingSending industrial processes out for external production. The term outsourcing increasingly applies not only to traditional industrial functions, but also to the contracting of service industry functions to companies to overseas locations, where operating costs remain relatively low
Basic IndustriesIs based along the lines of bringing money into the economy by providing a service to people outside the community.
Examples: Agriculture, ranching, fishing, forestry, mining, and petroleum.
An example would be a commercial fruit orchard. Fruits is grow in mass amounts inside the community and shipped to outside communities in order to provide growth in the economy.
Non-Basic IndustriesIndustries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
No new money is brought into the community and the service or product is only offered to the people within the community. An example of a ______ industry would be a hairdresser or a local retailer.
Cayman IslandsA British Crown Colony in the Caribbean near Cuba. Comprises three major islands and several other smaller ones. Here, it is a crime to do or discuss confidential business, described as matters learned on the job, in public. This is an example of offshore financial services.
Central Place TheoryA theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther. Helps to explain how the most profitable location can be identified.
Command and Control CenterSecond level of cities that contains the headquarters of many large corporations, well-developed banking facilities, and concentrations of other business services, including insurance, accounting, advertising, law, and public relations.
Example: Los Angeles, CA
Common AreasLand or resources belonging to or affecting the whole of a community.
Ex: corridors, hallways, lobby, pool, toilets provided for the comfort and use of all occupants, owners, tenants, or users of a building or building complex.
Consumer ServicesBusinesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and education, health, and leisure services.
Dependent CenterFourth-level cities that provide relatively unskilled jobs and depend for their economic health on decisions made in the higher level cities.
Example: manufacturing, and military/ industial jobs
Durable Manufactured GoodsA category of consumer products that are not for immediate consumption and do not need to be purchased frequently because they are made to last for a long time. Since they’re made to last, durable goods are often times more expensive.
Example: automobiles, appliances, furniture, jewelry, consumer electronics and sporting goods.
Non-Durable Manufactured GoodsProducts consumers purchase with the plan to use for a short period of time. Also referred to as consumable goods, most non-durable goods are expected to be consumed or used in three years or less.
They may be literally consumed, as with food and drinks. They can also be utilized until they are gone, such as deodorant, toothpaste or dish soap. The third type is a product that is used and no longer needed, intended for one use, or wears out from normal use, such as socks, paper plates and light bulbs.
Economic BaseA community’s collection of basic industries.
Example: Primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors.
Is important to a community because exporting by the basic industries brings money into the local economy., thus stimulating the provision of more nonbasic consumer services for the settlement.
Enclosure System (Britain)The British government took away land from small farmers and gave it to the “big-shot” farmers and put fences and walls separating the farm land, making the wealthy farmers wealthier and the poor farmers more poor.
Financial ServicesThe economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, etc.
Geography of TalentIndividuals possessing special talents are not distributed uniformly among cities. Talented people are more attracted to the cities with the most job opportunities and financial incentives. The principal enticement for talented individuals to cluster in some cities more than others is cultural rather than economic.
Gravity ModelA model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Example: Amusement Park has lots of gravity.
Application: Things with more gravity are rarer.
Greek City-StatesKnossos on the island of Crete, Troy in Turkey, and Mycenae in Greece, are all examples of early settlements that were independent self-governing communities.
HexagonsRelating to the central place theory, market areas are arranged in this regular pattern/shape.
KraalA traditional African village of huts, typically enclosed by a fence. example of non-linear rural area
Leisure and Hospitality ServicesMost services include jobs in the restaurants, bars, lodging, and entertainment.
10% of U.S jobs.
Type of consumer service
Linear Rural SettlementThese comprise buildings clustered along a road, river, or dike to facilitate communications. The fields extend behind the buildings in long, narrow strips.
In America these settlements exist where the French settled (long-lot)
Non-Linear Rural SettlementThese comprise a central open space surrounded by structures/fences. Examples of these types of settlements are Kraal villages and Gewandorf settlements.
Long-lotA type of linear settlement. These can be found today along the St. Lawrence River, in Quebec. This type of settlement was enforced mostly by the French.
System implemented in Quebec, Louisiana, Texas or areas of French influence, that divide the land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
Louis WirthBelieved that what sets cities apart from rural areas are their large size, high density, and social heterogeneity.
Market Area (hinterland)The area surrounding the central place from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services.
To establish the ______ a circle is drawn around the node of service on a map. The territory inside the circle is its _______.
Example: Westchester–>NYC
Market Area AnalysisProcess that is used to determine whether or not to locate a service in a particular place.
to determine the attractiveness of a market, both now and in the future. Organizations evaluate the future attractiveness of a market by gaining an understanding of evolving opportunities and threats as they relate to that organization’s own strengths and weaknesses.
NestingMDC’s have many small settlements and not as many large settlements causing various sizes of hexagons; nesting pattern; Christaller found 7 levels of sizes; distance b/w two levels of same size increase with each increasing size level
overlapping hexagons of different sizes; 4 levels of market areas– hamlet, village, town, and city
Offshore Financial ServiceSmall countries, usually microstates and islands, exploit niches in the circulation of global capital, these places are providing the two important functions in the global circulation of capital: taxes and privacy. Many of these countries are dependencies of major world powers.
Areas that have been specially designed to promote business transactions, and thus have become centers for banking and finance
Optimal LocationLocation of services near the people, the best place to put a service get the most profit and use out of it.
Periodic MarketsWhen small vendors from all around meet up at a certain location to sell goods sometimes weekly and sometimes annually (Farmers Market)
Post-Industrial SocietyWhen a society’s manufacturing industry has declined and has now became more focused on the services to the community. Economically dependent upon the production and distribution of services, information, and knowledge.
Primate CityThe largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Examples: Paris and Mexico City
Professional ServicesServices such as: technical services, including law, management, accounting, architecture, engineering, design, and consulting. Usually needs a certain amount of education.
Occupations in the tertiary sector of the economy requiring special training in the arts or sciences. Some ______ require holding professional licenses such as architects, auditors, engineers, doctors and lawyers.
Profitabilitythe ability of a business to earn a profit
Public ServicesServices to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses, such as educators, federal government workers, state government workers, and local government workers.
About 17% of the total US workforce
RangeThe maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service. The ____ is the radius of the circle (or hexagon) drawn to delineate a service’s market area. People are willing to go a short distance for daily consumer services, such as groceries or gas. But people are willing to go a long distance for other services, like to an arena for a concert or ball game
ThresholdThe minimum number of people needed ot support the service. Every enterprise has a minimum number of customers required to generate enough sales to make a profit. So once the range has been determined, a service provider must determine whether a location is suitable by counting the potential customers inside the irregularly shaped circle.
Rank-size ruleA pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement. Mostly in MDC countries, because LDC’s normally do not have enough wealth to provide a variety of services, thus the absence of rank sized settlements, instead a primary city type of settlement
Retail Marketthe sale of goods to the public in relatively small quantities for use or consumption rather than for resale.
Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
For example anytime you buy
Wholesale marketthe selling of goods in large quantities to be retailed by others
Rural Settlements: clustereda place where a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings.
Rural Settlements: dispersedtypical of the North American rural landscape, is characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers.
ServicesAny activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.
Example: Car wash
Specialized Producer-Service CenterThese centers offer a more narrow and highly specialized variety of services. Such as motor vehicles in Detroit, and Steel in Pittsburgh.
Urbanizationa population shift from rural to urban areas, “the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas”, and the ways in which each society adapts to the change
Example: this is going at a rapid rate in India and China
Vendorsa person or company offering something for sale, especially a trader in the street.
Walter ChristallerDeveloped the Central Place Theory
World CitiesCenters for the provision of services in the global economy. A first-economic-level city, tightly entrenched into the global economy, controlling the flow of information and capital.
The three Dominant ones are London, Tokyo, and New York.
Major and Secondary ones play less central roles in the provision of services than the three dominant ones.